Engineering Handbook for Industirial Plastic Piping Systems

Engineering Handbook for Industirial Plastic Piping Systems

INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Material Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4
Industrial Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-17
Chemical Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18-38
Relative Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39-41
Thermoplastic Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42-63
Above-Ground Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64-73
Below-Ground Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74-76
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Installation of Thermoplastics
Solvent Cementing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78-86
Threading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87-89
Flanged Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91-92
Hydraulic Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93-95
Conversion Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96-102
Pump Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103-104
Glossary of Piping Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105-108
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MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
۲
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
POLYVINYLS
PVC (POLYVINYL CHLORIDE) has a relatively high tensile
strength and modulus of elasticity and therefore is stronger
and more rigid than most other thermoplastics. The
maximum service temperature is 140°F for Type 1. PVC
has excellent chemical resistance to a wide range of corro-
sive fluids, but may be damaged by ketones, aromatics, and
some chlorinated hydrocarbons. It has proved an excellent
material for process piping (liquids and slurries), water
service, and industrial and laboratory chemical waste
drainage. Joining methods are solvent welding, threading
(Schedule 80 only), or flanging.
CPVC (CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE) is partic-
ularly useful for handling corrosive fluids at temperatures up
to 210°F. In chemical resistance, it is comparable to PVC. It
weighs about one-sixth as much as copper, will not sustain
combustion (self-extinguishing), and has low thermal
conductivity. Suggested uses include process piping for
hot, corrosive liquids; hot and cold water lines in office
buildings and residences; and similar applications above the
temperature range of PVC. CPVC pipe may be joined by
solvent welding, threading, or flanging.
POLYOLEFINS
POLYPROPYLENE (HOMOPOLYMER) is the lightest
thermoplastic piping material, yet it has considerable
strength, outstanding chemical resistance, and may be used
at temperatures up to 180°F in drainage applications.
Polypropylene is an excellent material for laboratory and
industrial drainage piping where mixtures of acids, bases,
and solvents are involved. It has found wide application in
the petroleum industry where its resistance to sulfur-bearing
compounds is particularly useful in salt water disposal line,
chill water loops, and demineralized water. Joining methods
are coil fusion and socket heat welding.
COPOLYMER POLYPROPYLENE is a copolymer of propy-
lene and polybutylene. It is made of high molecular weight
copolymer polypropylene and possesses excellent dielectric
and insulating properties because of its structure as a non-
polar hydrocarbon polymer. It combines high chemical resis-
tance with toughness and strength at operating tempera-
tures from freezing to 200°F. It has excellent abrasion resis-
tance and good elasticity, and is joined by butt and socket
fusion.
POLYETHYLENE, although its mechanical strength is
comparatively low, polyethylene exhibits very good chemi-
cal resistance and is generally satisfactory when used at
temperatures below 120°F. Types I and II (low and medium
density) polyethylene are used frequently in tanks, tubing,
and piping. Polyethylene is excellent for abrasive slurries. It
is generally joined by butt fusion.
FLUOROPOLYMERS
PVDF (POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE) is a strong, tough,
and abrasion-resistant fluoroplastic material. It resists
distortion and retains most of its strength to 280°F. As well
as being ideally suited to handle wet and dry chlorine,
bromine, and other halogens, it also withstands most acids,
bases, and organic solvents. PVDF is not recommended for
strong caustics. It is most widely recognized as the materi-
al of choice for high purity piping such as deionized water.
PVDF is joined by thermal butt, socket, or electrofusion.
HALAR is a durable copolymer of ethylene and chlorofluo-
roethylene with excellent resistance to a wide variety of
strong acids, chlorine, solvents, and aqueous caustics.
Halar has excellent abrasion resistance, electric properties,
low permeability, temperature capabilities from cryogenic to
۳۴۰°F, and radiation resistance. Halar has excellent applica-
tion for high purity hydrogen peroxide and is joined by ther-
mal butt fusion.
TEFLON
There are three members of the Teflon family of resins.
PTFE TEFLON is the original Teflon resin developed by
DuPont in 1938. This fluoropolymer offers the most unique
and useful characteristics of all plastic materials. Products
made from this resin handle liquids or gases up to 500°F.
The unique properties of this resin prohibit extrusion or
injection molding by conventional methods. When melted
PTFE does not flow like other thermoplastics and it must be
shaped initially by techniques similar to powder metallurgy.
Normally PTFE is an opaque white material. Once sintered
it is machined to the desired part.
FEP TEFLON was also invented by DuPont and became a
commercial product in 1960. FEP is a true thermoplastic that
can be melt-extruded and fabricated by conventional meth-
ods. This allows for more flexibility in manufacturing. The
dielectric properties and chemical resistance are similar to
other Teflons, but the temperature limits are -65°F to a max-
imum of 300°F. FEP has a glossy surface and is transpar-
ent in thin sections. It eventually becomes translucent as
thickness increases. FEP Teflon is the most transparent of
the three Teflons. It is widely used for its high ultraviolet light
transmitting ability.
Caution: While the Teflon resin family has great
mechanical properties and excellent temperature
resistance, care must be taken when selecting the
proper method of connections for your piping
system. Generally, Teflon threaded connections
will handle pressures to 120 PSIG. Loose ferrule
connections are limited to 60 PSIG at ambient
temperatures. Teflon loses it’s ability to bear a load
at elevated temperatures quicker than other ther-
moplastics. When working with the PTFE products
shown in this catalog external ambient tempera-
tures ranging from -60°F to 250°F (-51°C to 121°C)
may be handled safely. Fluid or gas tempera-
tures inside the product should be limited to -60 to
۴۰۰°F (-51°C to 204°C) unless otherwise noted.
Always use extreme care when working with chem-
icals at elevated temperatures.
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
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FRP has been accepted by many industries because it
offers the following significant advantages:
(a) moderate initial cost and low maintenance; (b) broad
range of chemical resistance; (c) high strength-to-weight
ratio; (d) ease of fabrication and flexibility of design; and
(e) good electrical insulation properties.
EPOXY pipe and fittings have been used extensively by a
wide variety of industries since 1960. It has good chemical
resistance and excellent temperatures to pressure proper-
ties (to 300°F). Epoxy has been used extensively for fuel
piping and steam condensate return lines.
POLYESTER pipe and fittings have been used by the
industry since 1963. It has a proven resistance to most
strong acids and oxidizing materials. It can be used in
applications up to 200°F. Polyester is noted for its strength
in both piping and structural shapes.
VINYLESTER resin systems are recommended for most
chlorinated mixtures as well as caustic and oxidizing acids
up to 200°F. Vinylester for most service has superior chem-
ical resistance to epoxy or polyester.
NYLONS are synthetic polymers that contain an amide
group. Their key characteristics are: (a) excellent resis-
tance and low permeation to fuels, oils, and organic sol-
vent, including aliphatic, aromatic, and halogenated hydro-
carbons, esters, and ketones; (b) outstanding resistance to
fatigue and repeated impact; and (c) wide temperature
range from -30°F to 250°F.
POLYURETHANES
There are essentially two types of polyurethanes: polyester
based and polyether based. Both are used for tubing appli-
cations.
POLYESTER based is the toughest of the two, having
greater resistance to oil and chemicals. It does not harden
when used with most oils, gasoline, and solvents.
Polyurethane is extremely resistant to abrasives making it
ideal for slurries, solids and granular material transfer.
Temperature limit is 170°F.
POLYETHER-based polyurethane possesses better low
temperature properties, resilience and resistance to hydrolytic
degradation than the polyester previously discussed.
PFA TEFLON, a close cousin of PTFE, was introduced in
۱۹۷۲٫ It has excellent melt-processability and properties rivaling
or exceeding those of PTFE Teflon. PFA permits conventional
thermoplastic molding and extrusion processing at high rates
and also has higher mechanical strength at elevated temper-
atures to 500°F. Premium grade PFA Teflon offers superior
stress and crack resistance with good flex-life in tubing. It is
generally not as permeable as PTFE.
DURAPLUS
ABS (ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE)
There are many possibilities for polymer properties by com-
bining these resins. For our purposes we will limit it to two
products. One is the less expensive ABS resin used in drain,
waste, and vent applications. The other resin for more strin-
gent industrial applications has a different combination of the
three polymers that make up the copolymer. The Duraplus
product is made from this copolymer and has outstanding
impact resistance even at low temperatures. The product is
very tough and abrasion resistant. Temperature range is 40°F
to 176°F.
RYTON (PPS) POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE remains quite
stable during both long and short term exposure to high
temperatures. The high tensile strength and flexural modulus
typical of PPS compounds, decrease with an increase in
temperature. PPS is also highly resistant to chemical attack.
Relatively few chemicals react to this material even at high
temperatures. Its broad range of chemical resistance is second
only to that of Teflon (PTFE). Ryton is used primarily for
precision pump parts.
ELASTOMERS
VITON (FLUOROCARBON) is inherently compatible with a
broad spectrum of chemicals. Because of this extensive
chemical compatibility which spans considerable concentration
and temperature ranges, Viton has gained wide acceptance
as a sealing for valves, pumps, and instrumentation. Viton
can be used in most applications involving mineral acids, salt
solutions, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and petroleum oils.
EPDM (EPT) is a terpolymer elastomer made from ethylene-
propylene diene monomer. EPDM has good abrasion and
tear resistance and offers excellent chemical resistance to a
variety of acids and alkalies. It is susceptible to attack by oils
and is not recommended for applications involving petroleum
oils, strong acids, or strong alkalies.
HYTREL is a multipurpose polyester elastomer similar to vul-
canized thermoset rubber. Its chemical resistance is compa-
rable to Neoprene, Buna-N and EPDM; however, it is a
tougher material and does not require fabric reinforcement as
do the other three materials. Temperature limits are -10°F
minimum to 190°F maximum. This material is used primarily
for pump diaphragms.
THERMOSETS
FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS (FRP) including
epoxy, polyester, and vinylester have become a highly valu-
able process engineering material for process piping.
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Caution: Acids will cause softening, loss of strength,
rigidity, and eventual failure.
Caution: Polyester based polyurethanes may be
subject to hydrolysis under certain conditions, high
relative humidity at elevated temperatures, aerated
water, fungi, and bacteria. Where these potentials
exist, we recommend polyether-based polyurethane.
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MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
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MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Accelerated testing indicates that polyether-based
polyurethanes have superior hydrolytic stability as com-
pared to polyester based material. Made with no plasticizers
and with a low level of extractables, polyether is ideal for
high purity work. It will not contaminate laboratory samples
and is totally non-toxic to cell cultures. Compared with PVC
tubing, polyurethanes have superior chemical resistance to
fuels, oils, and some solvents. Its excellent tensile strength
and toughness make it suitable for full vacuums. This tub-
ing can withstand temperatures from -94°F to 200°F.
PTBP
Polybutylene terephthalate is a little known specialty mate-
rial belonging to the polyimide group; It has excellent
mechanical properties and good mechanical stress properties
under corrosive environments. PTBP is used mainly for
valve actuators, and bonnet assemblies.
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
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۵
The standards referenced herein, like all other standards,
are of necessity minimum requirements. It should be rec-
ognized that two different plastic resin materials of the
same kind, type, and grade will not exhibit identical physical
and chemical properties. Therefore, the plastic pipe pur-
chaser is advised to obtain specific values or requirements
from the resin supplier to assure the best application of the
material not covered by industry specifications; this sug-
gestion assumes paramount importance.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute, Inc.
۶۵۵ ۱۵th St. N.W.
۳۰۰ Metropolitan Square
Washington, DC 20005
Phone (202) 639-4090
ANSI PRESSURE CLASSES
ANSI Class 125 means 175 PSIG at 100°F
ANSI Class 150 means 285 PSIG at 100°F
ANSI Class 300 means 740 PSIG at 100°F
ANSI A119.2 – 1963
ANSI B72.2 – 1967
ANSI B31.8 – 1968
ANSI Z21.30 – 1969
The following ASTM standards have been accepted by
ANSI and assigned the following designations.
ASTM
American Society of Testing and Materials
۱۹۱۶ Race Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103
Plastic Pipe Specifications:
D 1785 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe,
schedules 40, 80, and 120
F 441 Chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride)(CPVC)
plastic pipe, schedules 40 and 80
D 2241 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe
(SD – PR)
D 2513 Thermoplastic gas pressure pipe, tubing
and fittings
D 2665 PVC plastic drain, waste, and vent pipe
and fittings
D 2672 Bell-ended PVC pipe
D 2729 PVC sewer pipe and fittings
D 2846 Chlorinated (CPVC) plastic hot water dis-
tribution system
D 2949 3” thin wall PVC plastic drain, waste,
and vent pipe and fittings
D 3034 Type PSM PVC sewer pipe and fittings
Plastic Pipe Fittings Specifications:
D 2464 Threaded PVC plastic pipe fittings,
Schedule 80
F 437 Threaded chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC) plastic pipe fittings, Schedule 80
D 2466 Socket-type PVC plastic type fittings,
Schedule 40
D 2467 Socket-type PVC plastic type fittings,
Schedule 80
F 439 Socket-type chlorinated polyvinyl
chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe fittings
Schedule 80
D 3036 PVC plastic pipe lined couplings, socket
type
Plastic Pipe Solvent Cement Specifications
D 2564 Solvent cements for PVC plastic pipe and
fittings
F 493 CPVC solvent cement
Plastic Lined Steel Piping Specifications:
ASTM A-587 Standard specification for electric-welded
low carbon steel pipe for the chemical
industry
ASTM A-53 Standard specification for pipe, steel, black
and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and
seamless
ASTM A-105 Standard specification for forgings, carbon
steel, for piping components
ASTM A-125 Standard specification for steel springs,
helical, heat-treated
ASTM A-126 Standard specifications for gray iron cast-
ings for valves, flanges, and pipe fittings
ASTM A-395 Standard specification for ferritic ductile
iron pressure retaining castings for use at
elevated temperatures
ASTM A-216 Standard specification for carbon steel