Engineering Handbook for Industirial Plastic Piping Systems

MATERIAL DESCRIPTION

Engineering Handbook for Industirial Plastic Piping Systems
POLYVINYLS
PVC (POLYVINYL CHLORIDE) has a relatively high tensile
strength and modulus of elasticity and therefore is stronger
and more rigid than most other thermoplastics. The
maximum service temperature is 140°F for Type 1. PVC
has excellent chemical resistance to a wide range of corro-
sive fluids, but may be damaged by ketones, aromatics, and
some chlorinated hydrocarbons. It has proved an excellent
material for process piping (liquids and slurries), water
service, and industrial and laboratory chemical waste
drainage. Joining methods are solvent welding, threading
(Schedule 80 only), or flanging.
CPVC (CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE) is partic-
ularly useful for handling corrosive fluids at temperatures up
to 210°F. In chemical resistance, it is comparable to PVC. It
weighs about one-sixth as much as copper, will not sustain
combustion (self-extinguishing), and has low thermal
conductivity. Suggested uses include process piping for
hot, corrosive liquids; hot and cold water lines in office
buildings and residences; and similar applications above the
temperature range of PVC. CPVC pipe may be joined by
solvent welding, threading, or flanging.
POLYOLEFINS
POLYPROPYLENE (HOMOPOLYMER) is the lightest
thermoplastic piping material, yet it has considerable
strength, outstanding chemical resistance, and may be used
at temperatures up to 180°F in drainage applications.
Polypropylene is an excellent material for laboratory and
industrial drainage piping where mixtures of acids, bases,
and solvents are involved. It has found wide application in
the petroleum industry where its resistance to sulfur-bearing
compounds is particularly useful in salt water disposal line,
chill water loops, and demineralized water. Joining methods
are coil fusion and socket heat welding.
COPOLYMER POLYPROPYLENE is a copolymer of propy-
lene and polybutylene. It is made of high molecular weight
copolymer polypropylene and possesses excellent dielectric
and insulating properties because of its structure as a non-
polar hydrocarbon polymer. It combines high chemical resis-
tance with toughness and strength at operating tempera-
tures from freezing to 200°F. It has excellent abrasion resis-
tance and good elasticity, and is joined by butt and socket
fusion.
POLYETHYLENE, although its mechanical strength is
comparatively low, polyethylene exhibits very good chemi-
cal resistance and is generally satisfactory when used at
temperatures below 120°F. Types I and II (low and medium
density) polyethylene are used frequently in tanks, tubing,
and piping. Polyethylene is excellent for abrasive slurries. It
is generally joined by butt fusion.
FLUOROPOLYMERS
PVDF (POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE) is a strong, tough,
and abrasion-resistant fluoroplastic material. It resists
distortion and retains most of its strength to 280°F. As well
as being ideally suited to handle wet and dry chlorine,
bromine, and other halogens, it also withstands most acids,
bases, and organic solvents. PVDF is not recommended for
strong caustics. It is most widely recognized as the materi-
al of choice for high purity piping such as deionized water.
PVDF is joined by thermal butt, socket, or electrofusion.
HALAR is a durable copolymer of ethylene and chlorofluo-
roethylene with excellent resistance to a wide variety of
strong acids, chlorine, solvents, and aqueous caustics.
Halar has excellent abrasion resistance, electric properties,
low permeability, temperature capabilities from cryogenic to
۳۴۰°F, and radiation resistance. Halar has excellent applica-
tion for high purity hydrogen peroxide and is joined by ther-
mal butt fusion.
TEFLON
There are three members of the Teflon family of resins.
PTFE TEFLON is the original Teflon resin developed by
DuPont in 1938. This fluoropolymer offers the most unique
and useful characteristics of all plastic materials. Products
made from this resin handle liquids or gases up to 500°F.
The unique properties of this resin prohibit extrusion or
injection molding by conventional methods. When melted
PTFE does not flow like other thermoplastics and it must be
shaped initially by techniques similar to powder metallurgy.
Normally PTFE is an opaque white material. Once sintered
it is machined to the desired part.
FEP TEFLON was also invented by DuPont and became a
commercial product in 1960. FEP is a true thermoplastic that
can be melt-extruded and fabricated by conventional meth-
ods. This allows for more flexibility in manufacturing. The
dielectric properties and chemical resistance are similar to
other Teflons, but the temperature limits are -65°F to a max-
imum of 300°F. FEP has a glossy surface and is transpar-
ent in thin sections. It eventually becomes translucent as
thickness increases. FEP Teflon is the most transparent of
the three Teflons. It is widely used for its high ultraviolet light
transmitting ability.
Caution: While the Teflon resin family has great
mechanical properties and excellent temperature
resistance, care must be taken when selecting the
proper method of connections for your piping
system. Generally, Teflon threaded connections
will handle pressures to 120 PSIG. Loose ferrule
connections are limited to 60 PSIG at ambient
temperatures. Teflon loses it’s ability to bear a load
at elevated temperatures quicker than other ther-
moplastics. When working with the PTFE products
shown in this catalog external ambient tempera-
tures ranging from -60°F to 250°F (-51°C to 121°C)
may be handled safely. Fluid or gas tempera-
tures inside the product should be limited to -60 to
۴۰۰°F (-51°C to 204°C) unless otherwise noted.
Always use extreme care when working with chem-
icals at elevated temperatures.
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
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FRP has been accepted by many industries because it
offers the following significant advantages:
(a) moderate initial cost and low maintenance; (b) broad
range of chemical resistance; (c) high strength-to-weight
ratio; (d) ease of fabrication and flexibility of design; and
(e) good electrical insulation properties.
EPOXY pipe and fittings have been used extensively by a
wide variety of industries since 1960. It has good chemical
resistance and excellent temperatures to pressure proper-
ties (to 300°F). Epoxy has been used extensively for fuel
piping and steam condensate return lines.
POLYESTER pipe and fittings have been used by the
industry since 1963. It has a proven resistance to most
strong acids and oxidizing materials. It can be used in
applications up to 200°F. Polyester is noted for its strength
in both piping and structural shapes.
VINYLESTER resin systems are recommended for most
chlorinated mixtures as well as caustic and oxidizing acids
up to 200°F. Vinylester for most service has superior chem-
ical resistance to epoxy or polyester.
NYLONS are synthetic polymers that contain an amide
group. Their key characteristics are: (a) excellent resis-
tance and low permeation to fuels, oils, and organic sol-
vent, including aliphatic, aromatic, and halogenated hydro-
carbons, esters, and ketones; (b) outstanding resistance to
fatigue and repeated impact; and (c) wide temperature
range from -30°F to 250°F.
POLYURETHANES
There are essentially two types of polyurethanes: polyester
based and polyether based. Both are used for tubing appli-
cations.
POLYESTER based is the toughest of the two, having
greater resistance to oil and chemicals. It does not harden
when used with most oils, gasoline, and solvents.
Polyurethane is extremely resistant to abrasives making it
ideal for slurries, solids and granular material transfer.
Temperature limit is 170°F.
POLYETHER-based polyurethane possesses better low
temperature properties, resilience and resistance to hydrolytic
degradation than the polyester previously discussed.
PFA TEFLON, a close cousin of PTFE, was introduced in
۱۹۷۲٫ It has excellent melt-processability and properties rivaling
or exceeding those of PTFE Teflon. PFA permits conventional
thermoplastic molding and extrusion processing at high rates
and also has higher mechanical strength at elevated temper-
atures to 500°F. Premium grade PFA Teflon offers superior
stress and crack resistance with good flex-life in tubing. It is
generally not as permeable as PTFE.
DURAPLUS
ABS (ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYRENE)
There are many possibilities for polymer properties by com-
bining these resins. For our purposes we will limit it to two
products. One is the less expensive ABS resin used in drain,
waste, and vent applications. The other resin for more strin-
gent industrial applications has a different combination of the
three polymers that make up the copolymer. The Duraplus
product is made from this copolymer and has outstanding
impact resistance even at low temperatures. The product is
very tough and abrasion resistant. Temperature range is 40°F
to 176°F.
RYTON (PPS) POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE remains quite
stable during both long and short term exposure to high
temperatures. The high tensile strength and flexural modulus
typical of PPS compounds, decrease with an increase in
temperature. PPS is also highly resistant to chemical attack.
Relatively few chemicals react to this material even at high
temperatures. Its broad range of chemical resistance is second
only to that of Teflon (PTFE). Ryton is used primarily for
precision pump parts.
ELASTOMERS
VITON (FLUOROCARBON) is inherently compatible with a
broad spectrum of chemicals. Because of this extensive
chemical compatibility which spans considerable concentration
and temperature ranges, Viton has gained wide acceptance
as a sealing for valves, pumps, and instrumentation. Viton
can be used in most applications involving mineral acids, salt
solutions, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and petroleum oils.
EPDM (EPT) is a terpolymer elastomer made from ethylene-
propylene diene monomer. EPDM has good abrasion and
tear resistance and offers excellent chemical resistance to a
variety of acids and alkalies. It is susceptible to attack by oils
and is not recommended for applications involving petroleum
oils, strong acids, or strong alkalies.
HYTREL is a multipurpose polyester elastomer similar to vul-
canized thermoset rubber. Its chemical resistance is compa-
rable to Neoprene, Buna-N and EPDM; however, it is a
tougher material and does not require fabric reinforcement as
do the other three materials. Temperature limits are -10°F
minimum to 190°F maximum. This material is used primarily
for pump diaphragms.
THERMOSETS
FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS (FRP) including
epoxy, polyester, and vinylester have become a highly valu-
able process engineering material for process piping.
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Caution: Acids will cause softening, loss of strength,
rigidity, and eventual failure.
Caution: Polyester based polyurethanes may be
subject to hydrolysis under certain conditions, high
relative humidity at elevated temperatures, aerated
water, fungi, and bacteria. Where these potentials
exist, we recommend polyether-based polyurethane.
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MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
۴
MATERIAL DESCRIPTION
Accelerated testing indicates that polyether-based
polyurethanes have superior hydrolytic stability as com-
pared to polyester based material. Made with no plasticizers
and with a low level of extractables, polyether is ideal for
high purity work. It will not contaminate laboratory samples
and is totally non-toxic to cell cultures. Compared with PVC
tubing, polyurethanes have superior chemical resistance to
fuels, oils, and some solvents. Its excellent tensile strength
and toughness make it suitable for full vacuums. This tub-
ing can withstand temperatures from -94°F to 200°F.
PTBP
Polybutylene terephthalate is a little known specialty mate-
rial belonging to the polyimide group; It has excellent
mechanical properties and good mechanical stress properties
under corrosive environments. PTBP is used mainly for
valve actuators, and bonnet assemblies.
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
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The standards referenced herein, like all other standards,
are of necessity minimum requirements. It should be rec-
ognized that two different plastic resin materials of the
same kind, type, and grade will not exhibit identical physical
and chemical properties. Therefore, the plastic pipe pur-
chaser is advised to obtain specific values or requirements
from the resin supplier to assure the best application of the
material not covered by industry specifications; this sug-
gestion assumes paramount importance.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute, Inc.
۶۵۵ ۱۵th St. N.W.
۳۰۰ Metropolitan Square
Washington, DC 20005
Phone (202) 639-4090
ANSI PRESSURE CLASSES
ANSI Class 125 means 175 PSIG at 100°F
ANSI Class 150 means 285 PSIG at 100°F
ANSI Class 300 means 740 PSIG at 100°F
ANSI A119.2 – 1963
ANSI B72.2 – 1967
ANSI B31.8 – 1968
ANSI Z21.30 – 1969
The following ASTM standards have been accepted by
ANSI and assigned the following designations.
ASTM
American Society of Testing and Materials
۱۹۱۶ Race Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103
Plastic Pipe Specifications:
D 1785 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe,
schedules 40, 80, and 120
F 441 Chlorinated poly (vinyl chloride)(CPVC)
plastic pipe, schedules 40 and 80
D 2241 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe
(SD – PR)
D 2513 Thermoplastic gas pressure pipe, tubing
and fittings
D 2665 PVC plastic drain, waste, and vent pipe
and fittings
D 2672 Bell-ended PVC pipe
D 2729 PVC sewer pipe and fittings
D 2846 Chlorinated (CPVC) plastic hot water dis-
tribution system
D 2949 3” thin wall PVC plastic drain, waste,
and vent pipe and fittings
D 3034 Type PSM PVC sewer pipe and fittings
Plastic Pipe Fittings Specifications:
D 2464 Threaded PVC plastic pipe fittings,
Schedule 80
F 437 Threaded chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
(CPVC) plastic pipe fittings, Schedule 80
D 2466 Socket-type PVC plastic type fittings,
Schedule 40
D 2467 Socket-type PVC plastic type fittings,
Schedule 80
F 439 Socket-type chlorinated polyvinyl
chloride (CPVC) plastic pipe fittings
Schedule 80
D 3036 PVC plastic pipe lined couplings, socket
type
Plastic Pipe Solvent Cement Specifications
D 2564 Solvent cements for PVC plastic pipe and
fittings
F 493 CPVC solvent cement
Plastic Lined Steel Piping Specifications:
ASTM A-587 Standard specification for electric-welded
low carbon steel pipe for the chemical
industry
ASTM A-53 Standard specification for pipe, steel, black
and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and
seamless
ASTM A-105 Standard specification for forgings, carbon
steel, for piping components
ASTM A-125 Standard specification for steel springs,
helical, heat-treated
ASTM A-126 Standard specifications for gray iron cast-
ings for valves, flanges, and pipe fittings
ASTM A-395 Standard specification for ferritic ductile
iron pressure retaining castings for use at
elevated temperatures
ASTM A-216 Standard specification for carbon steel
castings suitable for fusion welding for
high temperature service
ASTM A-234 Standard specification for piping fittings of
wrought carbon steel and alloy steel for
moderate and elevated temperatures
ANSI B-16.1 Cast iron pipe flanges and flanged fittings
Class 25, 125, 150, 250 and 800
ANSI B-16.42 Ductile iron pipe flanges and flanged fit-
tings Class 150 and 300
ASTM
Designation
Table 1
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
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INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
۶
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
ANSI B-16.5 Steel pipe flanges and flanged fittings
Class 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and
۲۵۰۰
A-587 Standard specification for electric-welded
low carbon steel pipe for the chemical
industry
A-53 Standard specification for pipe, steel black
and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and
seamless
A-105 Standard specification for forgings, car-
bon
steel, for piping components
A-125 Standard specification for steel springs,
helical, heat-treated
A-126-73 Standard specification for gray iron cast-
ings for valves, flanges, and pipe fittings
A-395-77 Standard specification for ferritic ductile
iron pressure retaining castings for use at
elevated temperatures
A-216-77 Standard specification for carbon steel
castings suitable for fusion welding for
high temperature service
Methods of Test Specifications:
D 256 Test for impact resistance of plastics and
electrical insulating materials
D 543 Test for resistance of plastics to chemical
reagents
D 570 Test for water absorption of plastics
D 618 Conditioning plastics and electrical insul-
ating materials for testing
D 621 Tests for deformation of plastics under
load
D 635 Test for flammability of self-supporting
plastics
D 638 Test for tensile properties of plastics
D 648 Test for deflection temperature of plastics
under load
D 671 Tests for repeated flexural stress of
plastics
D 757 Test for flammability of plastics, self-
extinguishing type
D 790 Test for flexural properties of plastics
D 883 Nomenclature relating to plastics
D 1180 Test for bursting strength of round, rigid
plastic tubing
D 1598 Test for time to failure of plastic pipe
under long-term hydrostatic pressure
D 1599 Test for short-time rupture strength of
plastic pipe, tubing and fittings
D 2122 Determining dimensions of thermoplastic
pipe and fittings
D 2152 Test for quality of extruded PVC pipe by
acetone immersion
D 2412 Test for external loading properties of
plastic pipe by parallel-plate loading
D 2444 Test for impact resistance of thermoplastic
pipe and fittings by means of a tup (falling
weight)
D 2837 Obtaining hydrostatic design basis
thermoplastic pipe materials
D 2924 Test for external pressure resistance of
plastic pipe
RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
D 2153 Calculating stress in plastic pipe under
internal pressure
D 2321 Underground installation of flexible
thermoplastic sewer pipe
D 2657 Heat joining of thermoplastic pipe and
fittings
D 2749 Standard definitions of terms relating to
plastic pipe fittings
D 2774 Underground installation of thermoplastic
pressure pipe
D 2855 Making solvent cemented joints with PVC
pipe and fittings
ASTM STANDARDS FOR PLASTIC MATERIALS
REFERENCED IN PLASTIC PIPE, FITTINGS, AND
CEMENT STANDARDS
D 1784 PVC compounds and CPVC compounds
BOCA
Building Officials Conference of America
۱۳۱۳ East 60th Street
Chicago, Illinois 60637
BOCA Basic Plumbing Code
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
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INDUSTRY STANDARDS
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Soil Conservation Service
Washington, DC 20250
SCS National Engineering Handbook, Section 2, Part 1,
Engineering Practice Standards
SCS432-D High pressure underground plastic
irrigation pipelines
SCS432-E Low head underground plastic irrigation
pipelines
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE MILITARY STANDARDS
Commanding Officer
Naval Publications and Forms Center
۵۱۰۸ Tabor Avenue
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19120
MIL-A-22010A(1) Adhesive solvent-type, polyvinyl chloride
amendment
MIL-C-23571A(YD) Conduit and conduit fittings, plastic, rigid
MIL-P-14529B Pipe, extruded, thermoplastic
MIL-P-19119B(1) Pipe, plastic, rigid, unplasticized, high
impact, polyvinyl chloride
MIL-P-22011A Pipe fittings, plastic, rigid, high impact,
polyvinyl chloride, (PVC) and poly 1, 2
dichlorethylene
MIL-P-28584A Pipe and pipe fittings, glass fiber rein-
forced plastic for condensate return lines
MIL-P-29206 Pipe and pipe fittings glass fiber reinfor-
ced plastic for liquid petroleum lines
DOT – OTS
Department of Transportation, Hazardous Materials
Regulation Board, Office of Pipeline Safety, Title 49, Docket
OPS-3 and amendments, Part 192. Transportation of
Natural Gas and Other Gas by Pipeline: Minimum Federal
Safety Standards, Federal Register, Vol, 35, No. 161,
Wednesday, August 19, 1980. Amendments to date are 192-
۱, Vol. 35, No. 205, Wednesday, October 21, 1970; 19-2, Vol.
۳۵, No. 220, Wednesday, November 11, 1970; and 192-3,
Vol. 35, No. 223, Tuesday, November 17, 1970.
FEDERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Specifications Activity
Printed Materials Supply Division
Building 197, Naval Weapons Plant
Washington, DC 20407
L-P-320a Pipe and fittings, plastic (PVC, drain,
waste, and vent)
L-P-1036(1) Plastic rod, solid, plastic tubes and tubing,
heavy walled; polyvinyl chloride
COMMERCIAL AND PRODUCT STANDARDS
Supt. of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20402
CS 272 PVC-DWV pipe and fittings
PS 21 PVC plastic pipe (Schedules 40, 80, 120)
supersedes CS 207-60
PS 22 PVC plastic pipe (SDR) supersedes
CS 256
CSA
Canadian Standards Association
۱۷۸ Rexdale Boulevard
Rexdale, Ontario, Canada
B 137.0 Defines general requirements and meth-
ods of testing for thermoplastic pressure
pipe
B 137.3 Rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe for
pressure applications
B 137.4 Thermoplastic piping systems for gas
service
B 137.14 Recommended practice for the installation
of thermoplastic piping for gas service
B 181.2 Polyvinyl chloride drain, waste, and vent
pipe and pipe fittings
B 181.12 Recommended practice for the installation
of PVC drain, waste, and vent pipe fittings
B 182.1 Plastic drain and sewer pipe and pipe
fittings for use underground
B 182.11 Recommended practice for the installation
of plastic drain and sewer pipe and pipe
fittings
Group
Commercial Standard
or Product Standard
ASTM Standard or
Tentative Specification
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
PS10
PS11
PS12
PS18
PS19
PS21
PS22
CS228
CS270
CS272
D2104
D2238
D2447
D1527
D2282
D1785
D2241
D2852
D2661
D2665
Table 2
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INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
۸
PHCC
National Association of Plumbing-Heating-Cooling
Contractors
۱۰۱۶ ۲۰th Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
National Standard Plumbing Code
SBCC
Southern Building Code Congress
۱۱۶۶ Brown-Marx Building
Birmingham, Alabama 35203
SBCC Southern Standard Plumbing Code
SIA
Sprinkler Irrigation Association
۱۰۲۸ Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20036
Minimum Standards for Irrigation Equipment
WUC
Western Underground Committee, W.H. Foote
Los Angeles Department of Water and Power
P.O. Box 111
Los Angeles, California 90054
Interim Specification 3.1: Plastic Conduit and Fittings
UL
Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
۲۰۷ East Ohio Street
Chicago, Illinois 60611
UL 651 Rigid Nonmetallic Conduit (September 1968)
UL 514 Outlet Boxes and Fittings (March 1951 with
Amendments of 22-228-67)
FHA
Architectural Standards Division
Federal Housing Administration
Washington, DC 20412
FHA UM-41 PVC plastic pipe and fittings for domestic
water service
FHA UM-49 ABS and PVC plastic drainage and vent
pipe and fittings, FHA 4550.49
FHA UM-53a Polyvinyl chloride plastic drainage, waste
and vent pipe and fittings
FHA MR-562 Rigid chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC)
hi/temp water pipe and fittings
FHA MR-563 PVC plastic drainage and vent pipe and
fittings
FHA Minimum Property standards interim revision No. 31
IAPMO
International Association of Plumbing and
Mechanical Officials
۵۰۳۲ Alhambra Avenue
Los Angeles, California 90032
Uniform Plumbing Code
IAPMO IS8 Solvent cemented PVC pipe for water
service and yard piping
IAPMO IS9 PVC drain, waste, and vent pipe and fit-
tings
IAPMO IS10 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) natural gas
yard piping
IAPMO PS27 Supplemental standard to ASTM D2665;
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic drain,
waste, and vent pipe and fittings
(NOTE: IS = installation standard; PS = property standard)
NSF
National Sanitation Foundation
School of Public Health
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
NSF
Standard No. 14: Thermoplastic Materials, Pipe, Fittings,
Valves, Traps, and Joining Materials
NSF
Seal of Approval: Listing of Plastic Materials, Pipe, Fittings,
and Appurtenances for Potable Water
and Waste Water (NSF Testing
Laboratory).
NSPI
National Swimming Pool Institute
۲۰۰۰ K Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20006
T.R.-19 The Role of Corrosion-Resistant Materials in
Swimming Pools, Part D, The Role of Plastics in
Swimming Pools.
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
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Type 4X Watertight, Dusttight and Corrosion-
Resistant – Indoor and Outdoor: This
type has same provisions as Type 4 and,
in addition, is corrosion-resistant.
Type 5 Superseded by Type 12 for Control
Apparatus.
Type 6 Submersible, Watertight, Dusttight, and
Sleet (Ice) Resistant – Indoor and
Outdoor: Type 6 enclosures are intend-
ed for use indoors and outdoors where
occasional submersion is encountered,
such as in quarries, mines, and man-
holes. They are required to protect
equipment against a static head of water
of 6 feet for 30 minutes and against dust,
splashing or external condensation of
non-corrosive liquids, falling or hose
directed lint and seepage. They are not
sleet (ice) proof.
Type 7 Class I, Group A, B, C, and D-Indoor
Hazardous Locations – Air-Break
Equipment: Type 7 enclosures are
intended for use indoors, in the atmos-
pheres and locations defined as Class 1
and Group A, B, C or D in the National
Electrical Code. Enclosures must be
designed as specified in Underwriters’
Laboratories, Inc. “Industrial Control
Equipment for Use in Hazardous loca-
tions,” UL 698. Class I locations are
those in which flammable gases or
vapors may be present in explosive or
ignitable amounts. The group letters A,
B, C, and D designate the content of the
hazardous atmosphere under Class 1 as
follows:
Group A
Atmospheres containing acetylene.
Group B
Atmospheres containing hydrogen or
gases or vapors of equivalent hazards
such as manufactured gas.
Group C
Atmospheres containing ethyl ether
vapors, ethylene, or cyclopropane.
Group D
Atmospheres containing gasoline,
hexane, naphtha, benzene, butane,
propane, alcohols, acetone, lacquer sol-
vent vapors and natural gas.
NEMA
National Electrical Manufacturers’ Association
۲۱۰۱ “L” St. N.W.
Washington, DC 20037
Type 1 General Purpose – Indoor: This enclosure
is intended for use indoors, primarily to
prevent accidental contact of personnel
with the enclosed equipment in areas
where unusual service conditions do not
exist. In addition, they provide protection
against falling dirt.
Type 2 Dripproof – Indoor: Type 2 dripproof en-
closures are for use indoors to protect the
enclosed equipment against falling non-
corrosive liquids and dirt. These enclo-
sures are suitable for applications where
condensation may be severe such as
encountered in cooling rooms and laundries.
Type 3 Dusttight, Raintight, Sleet (Ice) Resistant
Outdoor: Type 3 enclosures are intended
for use outdoors to protect the enclosed
equipment against windblown dust and
water. They are not sleet (ice) proof.
Type 3R Rainproof and Sleet (Ice) Resistant Out-
door: Type 3R enclosures are intended for
use outdoors to protect the enclosed
equipment against rain and meet the
requirements of Underwriters Laboratories
Inc., Publication No. UL 508, applying to
“Rainproof Enclosures.” They are not
dust, snow, or sleet (ice) proof.
Type 3S Dusttight, Raintight, and Sleet (Ice) Proof-
Outdoor: Type 3S enclosures are intend-
ed for use outdoors to protect the
enclosed equipment against windblown
dust and water and to provide for its oper-
ation when the enclosure is covered by
external ice or sleet. These enclosures do
not protect the enclosed equipment
against malfunction resulting from internal
icing.
Type 4 Watertight and Dusttight – Indoor and
Outdoor: This type is for use indoors or
outdoors to protect the enclosed equip-
ment against splashing and seepage of
water or streams of water from any direc-
tion. It is sleet-resistant but not sleet-
proof.
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
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INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
۱۰
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
HAZARDOUS (CLASSIFIED) LOCATIONS
IN ACCORDANCE WITH FACTORY MUTUAL ENGINEERING CORP.
Type 13
Type 12
Type 11
Bureau of Mines: Enclosures under Type 10
must meet requirements of Schedule 2G
(۱۹۶۸) of the Bureau of Mines, U.S.
Department of the Interior, for equipment to
be used in mines with atmospheres contain-
ing methane or natural gas, with or without
coal dust.
Corrosion-Resistant and Dripproof-Oil-
Immersed – Indoor: Type 11 enclosures are
corrosion-resistant and are intended for use
indoors to protect the enclosed equipment
against dripping, seepage, and external
condensation of corrosive liquids. In addi-
tion, they protect the enclosed equipment
against the corrosive effects of fumes and
gases by providing for immersion of the
equipment in oil.
Industrial Use – Dusttight and Driptight –
Indoor: Type 12 enclosures are intended for
use indoors to protect the enclosed equip-
ment against fibers, flyings, lint, dust and
dirt, and light splashing, seepage, dripping
and external condensation of non-corrosive
liquids.
Oiltight and Dusttight – Indoor: Type 13
enclosures are intended for use indoors pri-
marily to house pilot devices such as limit
switches, foot switches, pushbuttons, selec-
tor switches, pilot lights, etc., and to protect
these devices against lint and dust, seep-
age, external condensation, and spraying of
water, oil or coolant. They have oil-resistant
gaskets.
Type 10
Class I, Group A, B, C or D – Indoor
Hazardous Locations Oil-immersed
Equipment: These enclosures are intended
for indoor use under the same class and
group designations as Type 7, but are also
subject to immersion in oil.
Class II, Group E, F and G – Indoor Hazard-
ous Locations – Air-Break Equipment: Type
۹ enclosures are intended for use indoors
in the atmospheres defined as Class II and
Group E, F, or G in the National Electrical
Code. These enclosures shall prevent the
ingress of explosive amounts of hazardous
dust. If gaskets are used, they shall be
mechanically attached and of a non-com-
bustible, nondeteriorating, verminproof
material. These enclosures shall be
designed in accordance with the require-
ments of Underwriters’ Laboratories, Inc.
Publication No. UL 698. Class II locations
are those in which combustible dust may be
present in explosive or ignitable amounts.
The group letter E,F, and G designate the
content of the hazardous atmosphere as follows:
Group E
Atmosphere containing metal dusts, includ-
ing aluminum, magnesium, and their com-
mercial alloys.
Group F
Atmospheres containing carbon black, coal,
or coke dust.
Group G
Atmospheres containing flour, starch, and
grain dust.
Type 8
Type 9
The National Electrical Code and the Canadian Electrical
Code divide hazardous locations into three “classes” accord-
ing to the nature of the hazard: Class I, Class II, and Class
III. The locations in each of these classes are further divid-
ed by “divisions” according to the degree of the hazard.
Class I, Division 1 locations are those in which flammable
gases or vapors are or may be present in sufficient quanti-
ties to produce an ignitable mixture (continuously, intermit-
tently, or periodically).
Class I, Division 2 locations are those in which hazardous
mixtures may frequently exist due to leakage or maintenance
repair.
Class I, Division 3 are those in which the breakdown of
equipment may release concentration of flammable gases or
vapors which could cause simultaneous failure of electrical
equipment.
For purposes of testing, classification and approval of elec-
trical equipment atmospheric mixtures are classified in
seven groups (A through G) depending on the kind of
material involved.
Class II locations are classified as hazardous because of
the presence of combustible dusts.
Class III locations are hazardous because of the presence
of combustible fibers or flyings in textile processes.
There are similar divisions and groups for Class II and
Class III as those described for Class I. For specifics or
further details contact Harrington’s Technical Services
department.
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۱۱
Figure 4. Storage Tank
This is a system for the identification of hazards to life
and health of people in the prevention and control of
fires and explosions in the manufacture and storage of
materials.
The basis for identification are the physical properties
and characteristics of materials that are known or can
be determined by standard methods. Technical terms,
expressions, trade names, etc., are purposely avoided
as this system is concerned only with the identification
of the involved hazard from the standpoint of safety.
The explanatory material on this page is to assist users
of these standards, particularly the person who assigns
the degree of hazard in each category.
DISTANCE AT
WHICH SIGNALS
MUST BE LEGIBLE
MINIMUM SIZE
OF SIGNALS
REQUIRED
۵۰ FEET
۷۵ FEET
۱۰۰ FEET
۲۰۰ FEET
۳۰۰ FEET
۱”
۲”
۳”
۴”
۶”
NOTE:
This shows the correct spatial arrange-
ment and order of signals used for identi-
fication of materials by hazard.
IDENTIFICATION OF
MATERIALS BY HAZARD
SIGNAL ARRANGEMENT
Figure 2. For use where a white back-
ground is necessary.
Figure 1. For use where specified color
background is used with numerals of con-
trasting colors.
Figure 3. For use where a white back-
ground is used with painted numerals, or
for use when the signal is in the form of
sign or placard.
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
FLAMMABILITY
SIGNAL – RED
Hazardous Material Signals based on the National Fire
Protection Association Code number 704M and Federal
Standard 313. This system provides for identification of haz-
ards to employees and to outside emergency personnel.
The numerical and symboled system shown here are the
standards used for the purpose of safeguarding the lives of
those who are concerned with fires occurring in an industrial
plant or storage location where the fire hazards of material
may not be readily apparent.
ADHESIVE-BACKED PLASTIC
BACKGROUND PIECES – ONE
NEEDED FOR EACH NUMERAL,
THREE NEEDED FOR EACH
COMPLETE SIGNAL
REACTIVITY
SIGNAL –
YELLOW
HEALTH
SIGNAL –
BLUE
WHITE PAINTED BACKGROUND,
WHITE PAPER OR CARD STOCK
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SIGNALS
۲
۴
۳
۴
۲ ۳ ۲ ۳
۴
W
Table 4 – ARRANGEMENT AND
ORDER OF SIGNALS – OPTIONAL
FORM OF APPLICATION
۲
۴
۳
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
۱۲
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
IDENTIFICATION OF THE FIRE AND HEALTH HAZARDS OF MATERIALS
IDENTIFICATION OF HEALTH HAZARDS
COLOR CODE: BLUE
Materials which on exposure under
fire conditions would offer no
hazard beyond that of ordinary
combustible material.
IDENTIFICATION OF FLAMMABILITY
COLOR CODE: RED
IDENTIFICATION OF REACTIVITY
COLOR CODE: YELLOW
SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
RELEASE OF ENERGY
SUSCEPTIBILITY OF
MATERIALS TO BURNING
Materials which will rapidly or com-
pletely vaporize at atmospheric
pressure and normal ambient tem-
perature, or which are readily dis-
persed in air and which will burn
readily.
Materials which in themselves are
normally unstable and readily
undergo violent chemical change
but do not detonate. Also materials
which may react violently with
water or which may form potentially
explosive mixtures with water.
TYPE OF POSSIBLE INJURY SIGNAL
۴
Materials which on very short
exposure could cause death or
major residual injury even though
prompt medical treatment were
given.
Materials which in themselves are
readily capable of detonation or of
explosive decomposition or reac-
tion at normal temperatures and
pressures.
۴
۴
۳ ۳
Materials which on short exposure
could cause serious, temporary or
residual injury even though prompt
medical treatment were given.
Materials which in themselves are
capable of detonation or of explo-
sive reaction but require a strong
initiating source or which must be
heated under confinement before
initiation or which react explosively
with water.
Liquids and solids that can be
ignited under almost all ambient
temperature conditions.
۲ ۲
Materials that must be moderately
heated or exposed to relatively
high ambient temperatures before
ignition can occur.
Material which on intense or
continued exposure could cause
temporary incapacitation or
possible residual injury unless
prompt medical treatment is
given.
۱ ۱
۳
۲
۱
۰ ۰ ۰
Materials which on exposure
would cause irritation but only
minor residual injury, even if no
treatment is given.
Materials that must be preheated
before ignition can occur.
Materials that will not burn.
Materials, which in themselves are
normally stable, even under fire
exposure conditions, and which
are not reactive with water.
Materials which, in themselves,
are normally stable, but which can
become unstable at elevated tem-
peratures and pressures or which
may react with water with some
release of energy but not violently.
SIGNAL
SIGNAL
۲
۴
۳
W
HEALTH HAZARD
۴ – DEADLY
۳ – EXTREME DANGER
۲ – HAZARDOUS
۱ – SLIGHTLY HAZARDOUS
۰ – NORMAL MATERIAL
FIRE HAZARD
FLASH POINTS
۴ – BELOW 73°F
۳ – BELOW 100°F
۲ – BELOW 200°F
۱ – ABOVE 200°F
۰ – WILL NOT BURN
REACTIVITY
۴ – MAY DETONATE
۳ – SHOCK AND HEAT MAY
DETONATE
۲ – VIOLENT CHEMICAL CHANGE
۱ – UNSTABLE IF HEATED
۰ – STABLE
SPECIFIC HAZARD
Oxidizer OXY
Acid ACID
Alkali ALK
Corrosive COR
Use NO WATER
Radiation Hazard
W
Table 5
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۱۳
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
Government regulatory agencies
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
National Institute
of Standards and Technology
Public and Business Affairs Div.
Building 101, Room A903
Gaithersburg, MD 20889
Ph#: 301/975-2762
Fax: 301/926-1630
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
focuses on tasks vital to the country’s technology infrastructure
that neither industry nor the government can do separately.
NIST works to promote U.S. economic growth by working with
industry to develop and apply technology, measurements, and
standards.
Part of the Commerce Department’s Technology
Administration, NIST has four major programs that reflect U.S.
industry’s diversity and multiple needs. These programs include
the Advanced Technology Program; Manufacturing Extension
Partnership; Laboratory Research and Services; and the Baldrige
National Quality Program.
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
Consumer Affairs
۱۰۰۰ Independence Avenue SW
Washington, DC 20585
Ph#: 202/586-5373
Fax: 202/586-0539
The Department of Energy is entrusted to contribute to the wel-
fare of the nation by providing the technical information and scien-
tific and educational foundation for technology, policy, and institu-
tional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy used,
diversity in energy sources, a more productive and competitive
economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national
defense.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
۱۸۴۹ C Street NW
Washington, DC 20240
Ph#: 202/208-3100
Fax: 202/208-6950
As the nation’s principal conservation agency, the Department
of the Interior’s responsibilities include: encouraging and providing
appropriate management, preservation and operation of the
nation’s public lands and natural resources; developing and using
resources in an environmentally sound manner; carrying out relat-
ed scientific research and investigations in support of these objec-
tives; and carrying out trust responsibilities of the U.S. government
with respect to American Indians and Alaska Natives.
It manages more than 440 million acres of federal lands.
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Office of Information and Public Affairs
۲۰۰ Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20210
Ph#: 202/219-7316
Fax: 202/219-8699
The Department of Labor’s principal mission is to help working
people and those seeking work.
The department’s information and other services, particularly in
job training and labor law enforcement, benefit and affect many
other groups, including employers, business organizations, civil
rights groups and government agencies at all levels as well as the
academic community.
DEPARTMENT OF
TRANSPORTATION
Office of Public Affairs
۴۰۰ Seventh Street SW, Room 10414
Washington, DC 20590
Ph#: 202/366-4570
Fax: 202/366-6337
The Department of Transportation ensures the safety of all
forms of transportation; protects the interests of consumers; con-
ducts planning and research for the future; and helps cities and
states meet their local transportation needs.
The Department of Transportation Is composed of 10 operating
administrations, including the Federal Aviation Administration; the
Federal Highway Administration; the Federal Railroad
Administration; the Federal Transit Administration; the National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration; the Maritime Administration;
the St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corp.; the U.S. Coast
Guard; the Research and Special Programs Administration; and
the Bureau of Transportation Statistics.
DEPARTMENT OF THE
TREASURY
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and
Firearms
Liaison and Public Information
۶۵۰ Massachusetts Avenue NW
Room 8290
Washington, DC 20226
Ph#: 202/927-8500
Fax: 202/927-8112
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) is an
agency of the U.S. Department of the Treasury.
ATF’s responsibilities are law enforcement; regulation of the
alcohol, tobacco, firearms and explosives industries; and ensuring
the collection of taxes on alcohol, tobacco, and firearms.
ATF’s mission is to curb the illegal traffic in and criminal use of
firearms; to assist federal, state and local law enforcement agen-
cies in reducing crime and violence; to investigate violations of fed-
eral explosive laws; to regulate the alcohol, tobacco, firearms and
explosives industries; to assure the collection of all alcohol, tobac-
co and firearm tax revenues; and to suppress commercial bribery,
consumer deception, and other prohibited trade practices in the
alcoholic beverage industry.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
AGENCY
Communication, Education and Public Affairs
۴۰۱ M Street SW
Washington, DC 20460
Ph#: 202/260-2090 Public Information Center
Mail Code 3404
Ph#: 202/260-2080
Fax: 202/260-6257
Chemical Control
۴۰۱ M St. SW
Washington DC 20460
Ph#: 202/260-3749
Fax: 202/260-8168
Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention 401 M St.
SW Washington, DC 20460 Ph#: 202/ 260-8600 Fax: 202/260-7906
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an independent
agency in the executive branch of the U.S. government. EPA con-
trols pollution through a variety of activities, which includes
research, monitoring, standards setting, and enforcement.
The Environmental Protection Agency supports research and
antipollution efforts by state and local governments as well as by
public service institutions and universities.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
۱۴
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
Government regulatory agencies
FEDERAL AVIATION
ADMINISTRATION
۸۰۰ Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20591
Ph#: 800/FAA-SURE
FAA Consumer Hotline
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) provides a safe,
secure and efficient global aerospace system that contributes to
national security and the promotion of U.S. aerospace.
As the leading authority in the international aerospace commu-
nity, FAA is responsive to the dynamic nature of customer needs,
economic conditions and environmental concerns.
FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION Office of Public Affairs
Public Health Service Department of Health & Human Services
۵۶۰۰ Fishers Lane (HFI-40)
Rockville, MD 20857
Ph#: 301/443-3170
Consumer Affairs
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) works to protect, pro-
mote, and enhance the health of the American people by ensuring
that foods are safe, wholesome, and sanitary; human and veteri-
nary drugs, biological products and medical devices are safe and
effective; cosmetics are safe; electronic products that emit radia-
tion are safe; regulated products are honestly, accurately, and
informatively represented; these products are in compliance with
the law and the FDA regulations; and non-compliance is identified
and corrected and any unsafe and unlawful products are removed
from the marketplace.
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS
AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
۳۰۰ E Street SW
Washington, DC 20546
Ph#: 202/358-0000
Fax: 202/358-3251
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration explores,
uses and enables the development of space for human enterprise;
advances scientific knowledge and understanding of the Earth, the
solar system and universe; uses the environment of space for
research; and researches, develops, verifies and transfers
advanced aeronautics, space and related technologies.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY
AND HEALTH
Public Affairs
۲۰۰ Independence Avenue SW
Washington, DC 20201
Ph#: 202/260-8519
Fax: 202/260-1898
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) was established by the Occupational Safety and Health
Act of 1970. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention and is the federal institute responsible for conducting
research and making recommendations for the prevention of
work-related illnesses and injuries.
The Institute’s responsibilities include: investigating potentially
hazardous working conditions as requested by employers or
employees; evaluating hazards in the workplace; creating and dis-
seminating methods for preventing disease, injury, and disability;
conducting research and providing scientifically valid recommen-
dations for protecting workers; and providing education and train-
ing to individuals preparing for or actively working in the field of
occupational safety and health.
NIOSH identifies the causes of work related diseases and
injuries and the potential hazards of new work technologies and
practices. It determines new ways to protect workers from chemi-
cals, machinery, and hazardous working conditions.
NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION
SAFETY BOARD
۴۹۰ L’Enfant Plaza SW
Washington, DC 20594
Ph#: 202/382-6600
The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent fed-
eral accident investigation agency that also promotes transportation
safety.
The board conducts safety studies; maintains official U.S. cen-
sus of aviation accidents; evaluates the effectiveness of government
agencies involved in transportation safety; evaluates the safeguards
used in the transportation of hazardous materials; and evaluates the
effectiveness of emergency responses to hazardous material acci-
dents.
NUCLEAR REGULATORY
COMMISSION
Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20555
Ph#: 301/415-8200
Fax: 301/415-2234
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates the civilian uses
of nuclear materials in the United States to protect the public health
and safety, the environment, and the common defense and security.
The mission is accomplished through licensing of nuclear facili-
ties and the possession, use and disposal of nuclear materials; the
development and implementation of requirements governing
licensed activities; and inspection and enforcement to assure com-
pliance.
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND
HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
Office of Information and Consumer Affairs
۲۰۰ Constitution Avenue NW, Room N3647
Washington, DC 20210
Ph#: 202/2198151
Fax: 202/219-5986
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) sets
and enforces workplace safety and health standards with a goal of
ensuring safe and healthful working conditions for all Americans.
OSHA issues standards and rules for safe and healthful working
conditions, tools, equipment, facilities, and processes.
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND
HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION
Office of Public Information
One Lafayette Center
۱۱۲۰ ۲۰th Street, NW, Ninth Floor
Washington, DC 20036-3419
Ph#: 202/606-5398
Fax: 202/606-5050
The Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission is an
independent federal agency that serves as a court to provide deci-
sions in workplace safety and health disputes arising between
employers and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in
the department of labor.
U.S. COAST GUARD
Hazard Materials Standards Branch
۲۱۰۰ Second Street SW
Washington, DC 20593-0001
Ph#: 202/267-2970
Fax: 202/267-4816
The U.S. Coast Guard is the United States’ primary maritime law
enforcement agency as well as a federal regulatory agency and one
of the armed forces.
The U.S. Coast Guard duties include aids to navigation; defense
operations; maritime pollution preparedness and response; domes-
tic and international ice breaking operations in support of commerce
and science; maritime law enforcement; marine inspection and
licensing; port safety and security; and search and rescue.
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۱۵
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
Chemical Industry Trade Associations
ADHESIVES MANUFACTURERS
ASSOCIATION
۱۲۰۰ ۱۹th Street NW, Suite 300
Washington, DC 20036
Ph#: 202/857-1127
Fax: 202/857-1115
The Adhesives Manufacturers Association (AMA) is a national
organization comprised of major U.S. companies engaged in the
manufacturing, marketing, and selling of formulated adhesives or
formulated adhesives coatings to the industrial marketplace.
Associate members supply raw materials to the industry.
AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT
ASSOCIATION
۱ Gateway Center, 3rd Floor
Pittsburgh, PA 15222
Ph#: 412/232-3444
Fax: 412/232-3450
Membership Department
The Air & Waste Management Association is a non-profit, tech-
nical and educational organization with 17,000 members in 58
countries. Founded in 1907, the association provides a neutral
forum in which all viewpoints of an environmental issue (technical,
scientific, economic, social, political, and health-related) receive
equal consideration. The association serves its members and the
public by promoting environmental responsibility and providing
technical and managerial leadership in the fields of air and waste
management.
AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERS
(AAEE)
۱۳۰ Holiday Court, Suite 100
Indianapolis, MD 21401
Ph#: 301/261-8958 (Washington, DC)
This organization certifies environmental engineers.
AMERICAN BOILER
MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
۹۵۰ N. Glebe Road, Suite 160
Arlington, VA 22203
Ph#: 703/522-7350
Fax: 703/522-2665
The mission of the American Boiler Manufacturers Association
is to improve services to the public; to be proactive with govern-
ment in matters affecting the industry; to promote safe, economi-
cal, and environmentally friendly services of the industry; and to
carry out other activities recognized as lawful for such organizations.
THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY
P.O. Box 6136
Westerville, OH 43086-6136
Ph#: 614/890-4700
Fax: 614/899-6109
Customer Service: 614/794-5890
The American Ceramic Society is the headquarters for the pro-
fessional organization for ceramic engineers.
AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY
(ACS)
۱۱۵۵ Sixteenth Street NW
Washington, DC 20036
Ph#: 202/872-4600
Fax: 202/872-6337
ACS has 149,000 members. The members are chemists, chem-
ical engineers, or people who have degrees in related fields.
AMERICAN COKE AND COAL
CHEMICALS INSTITUTE
۱۲۵۵ ۲۳rd Street NW
Washington, DC 20037
Ph#: 202/452-1140
Fax: 202/466-4949
The ACCl’s mission is to represent the interests of the coke and
coal chemicals industry by communicating positions to legislative
and regulatory officials, cooperating with all government agencies
having jurisdiction over the industry, providing a forum for the
exchange of information, and discussion of problems and promoting
the use of coke and its byproducts in the marketplace.
AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF
GOVERNMENTAL INDUSTRIAL
HYGIENISTS (ACGIH)
Kemper Woods Center
۱۳۳۰ Kemper Meadow Drive, Suite 600
Cincinnati, OH 45240
Ph#: 513/742-2020
Fax 513/742-3355
The ACGIH is an organization of more than 5,500 industrial
hygienists and occupational health and safety professionals devot-
ed to the technical and administrative aspects of worker health and
safety.
AMERICAN CROP PROTECTION ASSOCIATION
۱۱۵۶ ۱۵th Street NW, Suite 400
Washington, DC 20005
Ph#: 202/872-3869
Fax: 202/463-0474
ACPA is the trade association for the manufacturers and formu-
lators/distributors representing virtually all of the active ingredients
manufactured, distributed, and sold in the United States for agri-
cultural uses, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides.
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF MINING, METALLURGICAL AND
PETROLEUM ENGINEERS (AIME)
۳۴۵ E. 47th Street
New York, NY 10017
Ph#: 212/705-7695
Fax: 212/371-9622
AIME serves as the unifying forum for the Member Societies,
which include the Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration;
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society; Iron and Steel Society;
Society of Petroleum Engineers; and the AIME Institute
Headquarters.
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE, INC.
(ANSI) 11 W. 42nd Street, 13th Floor
New York, NY 10036
Ph#: 212/642-4900
Fax: 212/302-1286
The Sales Department
ANSI is an approval entity in the United States for the voluntary
standards effort.
AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API)
۱۲۲۰ L Street NW
Washington, DC 20005
Ph#: 202/682-8000
Fax: 202/682-8232
The American Petroleum Institute (API) is the U.S. petroleum
industry’s primary trade association. API provides public policy
development and advocacy, research, and technical services to
enhance the ability of the petroleum industry to meet its mission.
AMERICAN SOClETY OF BREWING CHEMISTS
۳۳۴۰ Pilot Knob Road
St. Paul, MN 55121
Ph#: 612/454-7250
Fax: 612/454-0766
Member Services Representative
A non-profit organization that publishes scientific books and
journals.
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING AND
AIR CONDITIONING ENGINEERS (ASHRAE)
۱۷۹۱ Tullie Circle NE
Atlanta, GA 30329
Ph#: 404/636-8400
Fax: 404/ 321-5478
Customer Service: 800/527-4723
ASHRAE is an engineering society whose members are engi-
neers specializing in heating, refrigerating, and air conditioning.
It serves members through meetings and publications.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
۱۶
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
Chemical Industry Trade Associations
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (ASME)
۳۴۵ E 47th Street
New York, NY 10017-2392
Ph#: 212/705-7722
Fax: 212/705-7674
Member Services
This organization provides classes and networking, and also
serves its members by providing information about technology and
solutions to the problems of an increasingly technological society.
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
(ASNT)
۱۷۱۱ Arlingate Lane
P.O. Box 28518
Columbus, OH 43228-0518
Ph#: 614/274-6003
Fax: 614/274-6899
A non-profit organization that has 10,000 members worldwide.
It sells technical books as well as providing testing for certification
for non-destructive testing. This organization also publishes a
monthly magazine.
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR QUALITY CONTROL (ASQC)
P.O. Box 3005
Milwaukee, Wl 53201-3005
Ph#: 414/272-8575
Fax: 414/272-1734
Customer Service: 800/ 248-1946
This organization facilitates continuous improvement and
increased customer service by identifying, communicating, and
promoting the use of quality concepts and technology. The ASQC
carries out a variety of professional, educational, and information-
al programs.
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF SAFETY ENGINEERS
۱۸۰۰ E. Oakton
Des Plaines, IL 60018-2187
Ph#: 847/699-2929
Membership Department, extensions 231, 228, or 254
Fax: 847/296-3769
This is the oldest and largest organization servicing safety engi-
neers. It has more than 32,000 members and 139 local chapters.
The society provides safety education seminars, technical publica-
tions, and a monthly magazine among other services.
AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TESTING
& MATERIALS (ASTM)
۱۰۰ Barr Harbor Drive
W. Conshohocken, PA 19428
Ph#: 610/832-9500
Fax: 610/832-9555
Membership Department
This non-profit organization deals with 132 different commit-
tees, and provides materials and tests different standards.
CHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS
ASSOCIATION (CMA)
۱۳۰۰ Wilson Boulevard
Arlington, VA 22209
Ph#: 703/741-5000
Fax: 703/741-6095
CMA is one of the oldest trade associations in North America.
The CMA is also the focal point for the chemical industry’s collec-
tive action on legislative, regulatory, and legal matters at the inter-
national, national, state and local levels.
CHLORINE INSTITUTE
۲۰۰۱ L Street NW #506
Washington, DC 20036
Ph#: 202/775-2790
Fax: 202/223-7225
This organization supports the chloralkaline industry and serves
as a public service for safety and health.
COMPOSITES FABRICATORS ASSOCIATION
۸۲۰۱ Greensboro Drive, Suite 300
McLean, VA 22102
Ph#: 703/610-9000
Fax: 703/610-9005
The Composites Fabricators Association provides educational
services including seminars, video training tapes, publications, a
monthly technical magazine, and an annual convention. It offers
free technical, government, and regulatory service to its members.
COSMETIC, TOILETRY AND FRAGRANCE ASSOCIATION
۱۱۰۱ ۱۷th Street NW, Suite 300
Washington, DC 200364702
Ph#: 202/331-1770
Fax: 202/331-1969
The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association is the leading
trade association for the personal care product industry, repre-
senting the majority of U.S. personal care product sales. The
industry trade association was founded in 1894.
FEDERATION OF SOCIETIES FOR COATINGS TECHNOLOGY
۴۹۲ Norristown Road
Blue Bell, PA 19422
Ph#: 610/940-0291
Fax: 610/940-0292
This is a trade association for the paint industry.
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ADVISORY COUNCIL
۱۱۰۱ Vermont Avenue NW, Suite 301
Washington, DC 20005-3521
Ph#: 202/289-4550
Fax: 202/289-4074
Incorporated in 1978, the Hazardous Materials Advisory Council
(HMAC) is an international, non-profit organization devoted to pro-
moting regulatory compliance and safety in the transportation of
hazardous materials, substances, and wastes.
ISA
P.O. Box 12277
۶۷ Alexander Drive
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
Ph#: 919/549-8411
Fax: 919/549-8288
Brian Duckett, Meetings Manager
ISA develops standards for the instrumentation and control
field.
METAL FINISHING SUPPLIERS’ ASSOCIATION
۸۰۱ N. Cass Avenue, Suite 300
Westmont, IL 60559
Ph#: 708/887-0797
Fax: 708/887-0799
MFSA is an organization representing 175 member companies
who are suppliers of equipment, chemicals, and services to the
metal finishing industry.
NACE INTERNATIONAL
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
P.O. Box 218340
Houston, TX 77218-8340
Ph#: 713/492-0535
Fax: 713/492-8254
This organization provides a number of services to its mem-
bers: the selling of books, publications, magazines, classes, sem-
inars and symposiums are among some of those services.
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CHEMICAL RECYCLERS
۱۹۰۰ M. Street NW, Suite 750
Washington, DC 20036
Ph#: 202/296-1725
Fax: 202/296-2530
INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۱۷
INDUSTRY STANDARDS
Chemical Industry Trade Associations
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF
PRINTING INK MANUFACTURERS, INC.
(NAPIM)
Heights Plaza, 777 Terrace Avenue
Hasbrouck Heights, NJ 07604
Ph#: 201/288-9454
Fax: 201/288-9453
The National Association of Printing Ink Manufacturers is a trade
association whose purpose it is to represent the printing ink indus-
try in the United States and to provide direction to management in
the areas of environmental issues, business management, gov-
ernment regulations, and regulatory compliance.
NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION
ASSOCIATION (NFPA)
۱ Batterymarch Park
Quincy, MA 02269-9101
Ph#: 617/770-3000
Fax: 617/770-0700
Member Services
Fire protection standards and manuals. Services and interpre-
tation of standards are available to members only.
PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND MANUFACTURERS OF
AMERICA
۱۱۰۰ Fifteenth Street NW, Suite 900
Washington, DC 20005
Ph#: 202/845-3400
Fax: 202/835-3414
The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America
(PhRMA) represents the country’s largest research based phar-
maceutical and biotechnology companies. Investing nearly $16 bil-
lion a year in discovering and developing new medicines. PhRMA
companies are the source of nearly all new drug discoveries world-
wide.
PROCESS EQUIPMENT
MANUFACTURERS’ ASSOCIATION
۱۱۱ Park Place
Falls Church, VA 22046-4513
Ph#: 703/538-1796
Fax: 703/241-5603
The Process Equipment Manufacturers’ Association is an orga-
nization of firms and corporations engaged in the manufacture of
process equipment such as agitators, mixers, crushing, grinding
and screening equipment, vacuum and pressure filters, cen-
trifuges, furnaces, kilns, dryers, sedimentation and classification
devices, and waste treatment equipment.
PULP CHEMICALS ASSOCIATION, INC
۱۵ Technology Parkway South
Norcross, GA 30092
Ph#: 770/446-1290
Fax: 770/446-1487
The Pulp Chemicals Association Inc. is an international trade
association serving the common goals of its membership. Any per-
son, firm or corporation who manufactures chemical products
derived from the pulp and forest products industries is eligible for
membership.
RUBBER MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION
۱۴۰۰ K Street NW, Suite 900
Washington, DC 20005
Ph#: 202/682-4800
Fax: 202/682-4854
The Rubber Manufacturers Association is a trade association
representing the rubber and tire industry in North America.
SOAP AND DETERGENT ASSOCIATION 475 Park Avenue, S.
New York, NY 10016
Ph#: 212/725-1262
Fax: 212/213-0685
This is a national, non-profit trade association that represents
the manufacturers of soaps and detergents.
SOCIETY FOR THE ADVANCEMENT
OF MATERIAL AND PROCESS ENGINEERING
(SAMPE)
P.O. Box 2459
Covina, CA 91722
Ph#: 818/33-0616
Fax: 818/332-8929
SAMPE is a global, member-governed, volunteer, not-for-profit
organization, which supplies information on advanced state-of-the-
art materials and process opportunities for career development
within the materials and process industries.
SOCIETY OF PLASTICS ENGINEERS
۱۴ Fairfield Drive
Brookfield, CT 06804-0403
Ph#: 203/775-0471
Fax: 203/775-8490
This society deals with education, holds seminars and confer-
ences, and produces magazines and journals. Membership of
۳۷,۵۰۰ worldwide individuals in all areas of the plastics industry, in
۷۰ countries.
THE SOCIETY OF THE PLASTICS
INDUSTRY INC.
۱۲۷۵ K Street NW, Suite 400
Washington, DC 20005
Ph#: 202/371-5200
Fax: 202/371-1022
VALVE MANUFACTURERS
ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA (VMA)
۱۰۵۰ ۱۷th Street NW, Suite 280
Washington, DC 20036
Ph#: 202/331-8105
Fax: 202/296-0378
WANER ENVIRONMENT
FEDERATION
۶۰۱ Wythe Street
Alexandria, VA 22314-1994
Ph#: 703/684-2400
Fax: 703/684-2450
Member Services
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
۱۸
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE GUIDE
The chemical resistance data provided here on the following
pages has been assembled from a wide variety of sources
in our industry. This information is based on practical field
experience and actual laboratory testing conducted by the
manufacturers of various plastic resins and finished products.
Keep in mind that this information should only be used as a
guideline for recommendations and not a guarantee of
chemical resistance. Some performance variations may be
noticed between homopolymers and copolymers as well as
emulsion and suspension type resins of the same general
type. In addition, actual service conditions including temper-
ature, concentration, and contaminant’s will affect variances
in chemical resistance.
In assembling the chemical resistance data presented here,
several sources were checked. When conflicts were uncov-
ered, we took a conservative approach and used the lower
of two or more ratings. In addition, special consideration was
given to the material as supplied by a particular vendor; i.e.,
our polyethylene ratings are based on information provided
by tank manufacturers rather than pipe suppliers. This was
done primarily because of the volume of tanks supplied as
compared to polyethylene pipe.
In an attempt to make the recommendations more meaningful,
we have given the maximum recommended use temperature
for each plastic and elastomer in the specific chemicals listed.
Lacking complete data in many cases we did leave those in
question as blanks. Where a material is unsuitable for a
specific chemical an “X” is used.
To the best of our knowledge, the information contained in
this publication is accurate. However, we do not assume any
liability whatsoever for the accuracy or completeness of
such information. Moreover, there is a need to reduce
human exposure to many materials to the lowest physical
limits in view of possible long term adverse effects. To the
extent that any hazards may have been mentioned in this
publication, we neither suggest nor guarantee that such
hazards are the only ones which exist. Final determination
of the suitability of any information or product for the use
contemplated by any user, the manner of that use and
whether there is any infringement of patents, is the sole
responsibility of the user. We recommend that anyone
intending to rely on any recommendation or use any equip-
ment, processing technique, or material mentioned in this
publication should satisfy themselves as to such suitability,
and that they meet all applicable safety and health stan-
dards. We strongly recommend the user seek and adhere to
manufacturers’ or suppliers’ current instructions for handling
each material they use.
Metals are listed as:
A = Excellent
B = Good, minor effect
C = Fair, needs further tests
X = Unsuitable
USE OF THE CHEMICAL RESISTANCE TABLES
The aggressive agents are classified alphabetically accord-
ing to their most common designation. Further descriptions
include trivial or common names as trade names.
If several concentrations are given for a particular material,
the physical data, in general, relates to the pure product that
is 100% concentration.
In listing the maximum use temperature for each plastic type
in a given chemical, it can in general be assumed that the
resistance will be no worse at lower temperatures.
HOW TO SELECT THE CORRECT MATERIAL:
۱٫ Locate the specific chemical in the system or found in the
surrounding atmosphere using the alphabetical chart of
chemicals.
۲٫ Select the material with a maximum use temperature that
matches or exceeds the need. The Harrington philosophy
has always been to suggest the least costly
material that will do the job.
۳٫ Where a material or elastomer appears to be marginal
compared to the requirements, we encourage a call to
our technical service group.
EXAMPLES:
۱٫ Methylene chloride: in the tables PVDF, Halar, or Teflon
are the only materials suitable. Carbon steel
works well for chlorinated hydrocarbons of this sort
and that would be our choice unless there was anoth-
er reason to justify the higher cost of the PVDF,
Teflon or Halar.
۲٫ Sodium hypochlorite, 15% at 100°F, PVC is good to
۱۴۰°F and is the least expensive of the materials available.
۳٫ For nitric acid 40% ambient temperature, the tables rec-
ommend either CPVC or polypropylene at 73°F. In most
cases CPVC will be the economical choice. Note that PVDF
is rated for higher temperature use.
NOTE: The ratings shown for carbon and ceramic pump seals are approximate. Please contact
your local Harrington service center for a recommendation on your specific application.
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
APPROX. SP.GRAVITY @ 100% CONC.
PVC
CPVC
POLYPROPYLENE (PP)
POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE (PVDF)
POLYETHYLENE (PE)
POLYETHYLENE-CROSS LINKED (XLPE)
DURAPLUS ABS
RYTON
HALAR
PEEK
TEFLON
EPOXY
VINYLESTER
POLYSULFONE
VITON
EPDM
NEOPRENE
BUNA N (NITRILE)
CARBON
CERAMIC
۳۰۴ STAINLESS STEEL
۳۱۶ STAINLESS STEEL
HASTELLOY C
TITANIUM
CHEMICAL FORMULAS
PLASTIC ELASTOMER SEAL METAL
CHEMICAL RESISTACE GUIDE
—- = Data not available at printing; N/R = Not Recommended; N/A = Not Available (not manufactured)
* Threaded Polypropylene is not recommended for pressure applications and Fuseal drainage systems are not pressure rated.
**For threaded joints properly backwelded.
NOTE: The pressure ratings in this chart are based on water and are for pipe and fittings only. Systems that include valves, flanges, or other
weaker items will require derating the entire system.
POLYVINYLIDENE FLUORIDE (PVDF)
THREADED
Table 10
MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURES (PSI) AT 73°F AMBIENT
BASED UPON A SERVICE FACTOR OF .5
TEMPERATURE-PRESSURE AND MODULUS
RELATIONSHIPS
Temperature Derating
Pressure ratings for thermoplastic pipe are generally deter-
mined in a water medium at room temperature (73°F). As
the system temperature increases, the thermoplastic pipe
becomes more ductile, increases in impact strength, and
decreases in tensile strength. The pressure ratings of ther-
moplastic pipe must therefore be decreased accordingly.
The effects of temperature have been exhaustively studied
and correction (derating) factors developed for each ther-
moplastic piping compound. To determine the maximum
operating pressure at any given temperature, multiply
the pressure rating at ambient shown in Table 10 by the
temperature correction factor for that material shown in
Table 11. Attention must also be given to the pressure
rating of the joining technique, i.e., threaded system
normally reduces pressure capabilities substantially.
The standards for plastic pipe, using the 0.5 service factor,
require that the pressure rating of the pipe be based upon
this hydrostatic design stress, again calculated with the ISO
equation.
While early experience indicated that this service factor, or
multiplier, of 0.5 provided adequate safety for many if not
most uses, some experts felt that a more conservative ser-
vice factor of 0.4 would better compensate for water ham-
mer pressure surges, as well as for slight manufacturing
variations and damage suffered during installation.
The PPI has issued a policy statement officially recom-
mending this 0.4 service factor. This is equivalent to recom-
mending that the pressure rating of the pipe should equal
۱٫۲۵ times the system design pressure for any particular
installation. Based upon this policy, many thousands of miles
of thermoplastic pipe have been installed in the United
States without failure.
It is best to consider the actual surge conditions, as outlined
later in this section. In addition, substantial reductions in
working pressure are advisable when handling aggressive
chemical solutions and in high-temperature service.
Numerical relationships for service factors and design
stresses of PVC are shown in Table 9.
HDS
THERMOPLASTIC ENGINEERING
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۴۵
FLANGED SYSTEMS
Maximum pressure for any flanged system
is 150 psi. At elevated temperatures the
pressure capability of a flanged system
must be derated as shown in Table 12.
Design Pressure – Pressure rating at 73°F
x temperature correction factor .
N/R = Not Recommended
* PVC and CPVC flanges sizes 2-1/2 through 3-/and 4-inch thread-
ed must be backwelded for the above pressure capability to be
applicable.
** Threaded PP flanges size 1/2 through 4 inch as well as the 6”
back welded socket flange are not recommended for pressure appli-
cations (drainage only).
PRESSURE RATINGS
PVC LARGE DIAMETER FABRICATED FITTINGS
AT 73°F
Table 23
CROSS
Table 24
FLANGE (BLIND)
Table 25
CAP
Table 26
IPS PIPE DIMENSION TABLE
THERMOPLASTIC ENGINEERING
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۴۹
EXTERNAL PRESSURES – COLLAPSE RATING
Thermoplastic pipe is frequently specified for situations
where uniform external pressures are applied to the pipe,
such as in underwater applications. In these applications,
the collapse rating of the pipe determines the maximum per-
missible pressure differential between external and internal
pressures. The basic formulas for collapsing external pres-
sure applied uniformly to a long pipe are:
۱٫ For thick wall pipe where collapse is caused by compres-
sion and failure of the pipe material:
Pc = o (Do 2 -Di 2 )
۲Do 2
۲٫ For thin wall pipe where collapse is caused by elastic
instability of the pipe wall:
Pc = 2cE t 3
Vacuum Service – All sizes of Schedule 80 thermoplastic
pipe are suitable for vacuum service up to 140°F and 30
inches of mercury. Solvent-cemented joints are recom-
mended for vacuum applications when using PVC.
Schedule 40 PVC will handle full vacuum up to 24” diame-
ter.
Laboratory tests have been conducted on Schedule 80 PVC
pipe to determine performance under vacuum at tempera-
tures above recommended operating conditions. Pipe sizes
under 6 inches show no deformation at temperatures to
۱۷۰°F and 27 inches of mercury vacuum.
The 6 inch pipe showed slight deformation at 165°F, and 20
inches of mercury. Above this temperature, failure occurred
due to thread deformation.
SHORT-TERM COLLAPSE PRESSURE IN PSI AT 73°F
SCHEDULE 80 PRESSURE POLYPROPYLENE – IPS
SCHEDULE 80 PVDF – IPS
PROLINE PRO 150
PROLINE PRO 45
SUPER PROLINE
۱٫۶ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۶ ۱٫۶
Table 28
NOTE: These are short-term ratings; long-term ratings should be
reduced by 1/3 to 1/2 of the short-term ratings.
Collapse pressures must be adjusted for temperatures other
than for room temperature. The pressure temperature cor-
rection chart (Table 28) used to adjust pipe pressure ratings
may be used for this purpose. (See note below table).
MATERIAL

CARRYING CAPACITY AND FRICTION LOSS 160 PSI AND SDR 26 THERMOPLASTIC PIPE
(Independent variables: Gallons per minute and nominal pipe size O.D.
Dependent variables: Velocity, friction head and pressure drop per 100 feet of pipe, interior smooth .)
۱/۲ IN. 3/4 IN. 1 IN. 1-1/4 IN. 1-1/2 IN. 2 IN. 2-1/2 IN. 3 IN.
۴ IN.
۵ IN.
۶ IN.
۸ IN.
۱۰ IN.
۱۲ IN.
THERMOPLASTIC ENGINEERING
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۵۵
PROLINE-POLYPROPYLENE 150 FLOW RATES
TABLE 34
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
GALLONS
PER MINUTE
۱/۲ IN. 3/4 IN. 1 IN. 1-1/4 IN. 1-1/2 IN. 2 IN. 2-1/2 IN. 3 IN.
۴ IN.
۶ IN.
۸ IN.
۱۰ IN.
۱۲ IN.
۱۴ IN.
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
۱۶ IN.
۱۸ IN.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
THERMOPLASTIC ENGINEERING
۵۶
PROLINE-POLYPROPYLENE 45 FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
FRICTION HEAD
FEET
VELOCITY
FEET PER SECOND
FRICTION LOSS
POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH
PER MINUTE
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
THERMOPLASTIC ENGINEERING
۵۸
CARRYING CAPACITY & FRICTION LOSS
TABLE 37
EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPE IN FEET
THERMOPLASTIC ENGINEERING
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
Table 39 VALUES OF S AND S 1/2 .
Table 40 VALUES OF n.
DISCHARGE
Horizontal drains are designated to flow at half full capacity under uniform flow conditions so as to prevent the generation of
positive pressure fluctuations. A minimum of 1/4” per foot should be provided for 3” pipe and smaller, 1/8” per foot for 4”
through 6”, and 1/16” per foot for 8” and larger. These minimum slopes are required to maintain a velocity of flow greater
than 2 feet per second for scouring action. Table 41 gives the approximate velocities and discharge rated for given slopes
and diameters of horizontal drains based on modified Manning Formula for 1/2 full pipe and n = 0.015. The valves for R, R
۲/۳, A, S, S 1/2 and n are from Tables 38, 39 & 40.
۱٫۴۸۶
n
Where: Q = Flow in GPM R = Hydraulic radius of pipe
A = Cross sectional area, sq. ft. S = Hydraulic gradient
n = Manning coefficient
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
THERMOPLASTIC ENGINEERING
۶۰
WATER
VELOCITY
(FT/SEC)
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
۱/۲ ۳/۴ ۱ ۱-۱/۴ ۱-۱/۲ ۲ ۳ ۴ ۶ ۸ ۱۰ ۱۲
Table 42 – SURGE PRESSURE, Ps IN PSI AT 73°F
۱٫ Velocity (The primary factor in excessive water hammer: see
discussion of “Velocity “ and “Safety Factor” on page 62).
۲٫ Modulus of elasticity of material of which the pipe is made.
۳٫ Inside diameter of pipe.
۴٫ Wall thickness of pipe.
۵٫ Valve closing time.
WATER HAMMER
Surge pressures due to water hammer are a major factor contributing
to pipe failure in liquid transmission systems. Acolumn of moving fluid
within a pipeline, owing to its mass and velocity, contains stored ener-
gy. Since liquids are essentially incompressible, this energy cannot be
absorbed by the fluid when a valve is suddenly closed.
The result is a high momentary pressure surge, usually called water
hammer. The five factors that determine the severity of water hammer are:
Maximum pressure surges caused by water hammer can be calcu-
lated by using the equation below. This surge pressure should be
added to the existing line pressure to arrive at a maximum operat-
ing pressure figure.
Et 3960
۱/۲
Ps = V ( )
Et + 3 x 10 5 Di
Where:
Ps = Surge Pressure. in psi
V = Liquid Velocity, in ft. per sec.
Di = Inside Diameter of Pipe, in.
E = Modulus of Elasticity of Pipe Material, psi
t = Wall Thickness of Pipe, in.
Calculated surge pressure, which assumes instantaneous valve clo-
sure, can be calculated for any material using the values for E
(Modulus of Elasticity) found in the properties chart, pages 40-41.
Here are the most commonly used surge pressure tables for IPS pipe
sizes.
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA
FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
NOTE: For sizes larger than 12”, call Harrington’s Technical Services Group.
THERMOPLASTIC ENGINEERING
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۶۱
WATER HAMMER (continued)
However, to keep water hammer pressures within reason-
able limits, it is common practice to design valves for closure
times considerably greater than 2L/C.
Where:
T c = Valve Closure time, sec.
L = Length of Pipe run, ft.
C = Sonic Velocity of the Pressure
Wave = 4720 ft. sec.
Another formula which closely predicts water hammer
effects is:
which is based on the elastic wave theory. In this text, we
have further simplified the equation to:
Where p = maximum surge pressure, psi
v = fluid velocity in feet per second
C = surge wave constant for water at 73°F
It should be noted that the surge pressure (water hammer)
calculated here is a maximum pressure rise for any fluid
velocity, such as would be expected from the instant closing
of a valve. It would therefore yield a somewhat conservative
figure for use with slow closing actuated valves, etc.
For fluids heavier than water, the following correction should
be made to the surge wave constant C.
Where C 1 = Corrected Surge Wave Constant
S.G. = Specific Gravity or Liquid
For example, for a liquid with a specific gravity of 1.2 in 2”
Schedule 80 PVC pipe, from Table 43 = 24.2
Proper design when laying out a piping system will elim-
inate the possibility of water hammer damage.
The following suggestions will help in avoiding problems:
۱)
In a plastic piping system, a fluid velocity not exceeding
۵ft/sec. will minimize water hammer effects, even with
quickly closing valves, such as solenoid valves.
Using actuated valves which have a specific closing
time will eliminate the possibility of someone inadver-
tently slamming a valve open or closed too quickly. With
pneumatic and air-spring actuators, it may be neces-
sary to place a valve in the air line to slow down the
valve operation cycle.
If possible, when starting a pump, partially close the
valve in the discharge line to minimize the volume of liq-
uid which is rapidly accelerating through the system.
Once the pump is up to speed and the line completely
full, the valve may be opened.
A check valve installed near a pump in the discharge
line will keep the line full and help prevent excessive
water hammer during pump start-up.
۲)
۳)
۴)
VELOCITY
Thermoplastic piping systems have been installed that have
successfully handled water velocities in excess of 10 feet per
second. Thermoplastic pipe is not subject to erosion caused
by high velocities and turbulent flow, and in this respect is
superior to metal piping systems, particularly where corro-
sive or chemically agressive fluids are involved. The Plastics
Pipe Institute has issued the following policy statement on
water velocity:
The maximum safe water velocity in a themoplastic piping
system depends on the specific details of the system and
the operating conditions. In general, 5 feet per second is
considered to be safe. Higher velocities may be used in
cases where the operating characteristics of valves and
pumps are known so that sudden changes in flow velocity
can be controlled. The total pressure in the system at any
time (operating plus surge or water hammer) should not
exceed 150 percent of the pressure rating of the system.
SAFETY FACTOR
As the duration of pressure surges due to water hammer is
extremely short – seconds, or more likely, fractions of a sec-
ond – in determining the safety factor the maximum fiber
stress due to total internal pressure must be compared to
some very short-term strength value. Referring to Figure 6,
shown on page 43, it will be seen that the failure stress for
very short time periods is very high when compared to the
hydrostatic design stress.
The calculation of safety factor may thus be based very con-
servatively on the 20-second strength value given in Figure
۶, shown on page 43 – 8470 psi for PVC Type 1.
A sample calculation is shown below, based upon the listed
criteria:
Pipe = 1-1/4” Schedule 80 PVC
O.D. = 1.660: Wall = 0.191
HDS = 2000 psi
The calculated surge pressure for 1-1/4” Schedule 80 PVC
pipe at a velocity of 1 ft/sec is 26.2 psi/ft/sec.
SCH 80 SCH 40 SCH 40 SCH 80
Table 43 – Surge Wave Correction for Specific Gravity
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA
FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
THERMOPLASTIC ENGINEERING
۶۲
( )
In each case, the hydrostatic design basis = 4000 psi, and
the water velocity = 5 feet per second.
Comparing safety factor for this 1-1/4” Schedule 80 pipe at
different service factors, it is instructive to note that changing
from a service factor of 0.5 to a more conservative 0.4
increases the safety factor only by 16%.
۱۰۰ x 1 – 3.38 = 16%
۴٫۰۳
In the same way, changing the service factor from 0.4 to 0.35
increases the safety factor only by 9%. Changing the ser-
vice factor from 0.5 to 0.35 increases the safety factor by
۲۴%.
From these comparisons it is obvious that little is to be
gained in safety from surge pressures by fairly large
changes in the hydrostatic design stress resulting from
choice of more conservative service factors.
( )
۳٫ Diameter of the pipe.
۴٫ Surface roughness of interior of the pipe.
۵٫The length of the pipeline.
Hazen and Williams Formula
The head losses resulting from various water flow rates in
plastic piping may be calculated by means of the Hazen and
Williams formula:
f = 0.2083 100 q
C Di
= .۰۹۸۳ q for C = 150
Di
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA
FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
Water Velocity = 5 feet per second
Static Pressure in System = 300 psi
Total System Pressure = Static Pressure + Surge Pressure:
Pt = P x Ps
= ۳۰۰ + ۵ x 26.2
= ۴۳۱٫۰ psi
Maximum circumferential stress is calculated from a varia-
tion of the ISO Equation:
S = Pt (Do-t) = 431(1.660-.191) = 1657.4
۲t 2x.191
Safety Factor = 20 second strength = 8470 = 5.11
Maximum stress 1657
Table 44 gives the results of safety factor calculations based
upon service factors of 0.5 and 0.4 for the 1-1/4” PVC
Schedule 80 pipe of the example shown above using the full
pressure rating calculated from the listed hydrostatic design-
stress.
Table 44
SAFETY FACTORS VS. SERVICE FACTORS – PVC TYPE 1 THERMOPLASTIC PIPE
PIPE CLASS
SERVICE
FACTOR
HDS
PSI
PRESSURE
RATING
PSI
SURGE
PRESSURE
AT 5 FT/SEC
MAXIMUM
PRESSURE
PSI
MAXIMUM
STRESS
PSI
SAFETY
FACTOR
۱-۱/۴” Sch. 80
۱-۱/۴” Sch. 80
۰٫۵
۰٫۴
۲۰۰۰
۱۶۰۰
۵۲۰
۴۱۶
۱۳۱٫۰
۱۳۱٫۰
۶۵۱٫۰
۵۴۷٫۰
۲۵۰۳٫۵
۲۱۰۳٫۵
۳٫۳۸
۴٫۰۳
INTRODUCTION
A major advantage of thermoplastic pipe is its exceptionally
smooth inside surface area, which reduces friction loss
compared to other materials.
Friction loss in plastic pipe remains constant over extended
periods of time, in contrast to some other materials where
the value of the Hazen and Williams C factor (constant for
inside roughness) decreases with time. As a result, the flow
capacity of thermoplastics is greater under fully turbulent
flow conditions like those encountered in water service.
C FACTORS
Tests made both with new pipe and pipe that had been in
service revealed C factor values for plastic pipe between 160
and 165. Thus, the factor of 150 recommended for water in
the equation below is on the conservative side. On the other
hand, the C factor for metallic pipe varies from 65 to 125,
depending upon age and interior roughening. The obvious
benefit is that with plastic systems it is often possible to use
a smaller diameter pipe and still obtain the same or even
lower friction losses.
The most significant losses occur as a result of the length of
pipe and fittings and depend on the following factors.
۱٫ Flow velocity of the fluid.
۲٫The type of fluid being transmitted, especially its viscosity.
FRICTION LOSS CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER
THROUGH PLASTIC PIPE, FITTINGS AND VALVES
P = .4335f
Where:
f = Friction Head in ft. of Water per 100 ft of Pipe
P = Pressure Loss in psi per 100 ft. of Pipe
Di = Inside Diameter of Pipe, in.
q = Flow Rate in U.S. gal/min
C = Constant for Inside Roughness (C equals 150
thermoplastics)
Pressure rating values are for PVC pipe, and for most sizes
are calculated from the experimentally determined long-term
strength of PVC extrusion compounds. Because molding
compounds may differ in long term strength and elevated
temperature properties from pipe compounds, piping systems
consisting of extruded pipe and molded fittings may have
lower pressure ratings than those shown here, particularly at
the higher temperatures. Caution should be exercised in
design operating above 100°F.
۱٫۸۵۲
۱٫۸۵۲
x
۴٫۸۶۵۵
۱٫۸۵۲
۴٫۸۶۵۵
FLOW OF FLUIDS AND HEAD LOSS CALCULATIONS
Tables, flow charts, or a monograph may be used to assist in the
design of a piping system depending upon the accuracy desired. In
computing the internal pressure for a specified flow rate, changes in
static head loss due to restrictions (valves, orifices, etc.) as well as
flow head loss must be considered.
The formula in Table 45 can be used to determine the head loss due
to flow if the fluid viscosity and density and flow rate are known. The
head loss in feet of fluid is given by:
:۱۸۶ fLV
d
f, the friction factor, is a funcion of the Reynolds number, adimen-
sionless parameter which indicates the degree of turbulence.
The Reynolds number is defined as: dVW
۱۲U
Figure 7 below shows the relationship between the friction factor, f,
and the Reynolds number, R. It is seen that three distinct flow zones
exist. In the laminar flow zone, from Reynolds numbers 0 to 2000,
the friction factor is given by the equation:
۶۴
R
Substituting this in the equation for the head loss, the formula for
laminar flow becomes:
۱۴۳ ULV
Wd
THERMOPLASTIC ENGINEERING
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۶۳
h =
f=
f=
h =
۱۲ u
d
h= .186
SYMBOL QUANTITY UNITS
B flow rate barrels/hour
d inside diameter inches
f friction factor dimensionless
G flow rate gallons/minute
h head loss feet of fluid
k kinematic viscosity centistokes
L length of pipe feet
P pressure drop lbs/in
Q flow rate ft /sec.
R Reynolds number dimensionless
u absolute viscosity lb/ft-sec.
V velocity ft./sec.
w density lbs/ft
z absolute viscosity centipoises
SYSTEMS ENGINEERING DATA
FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
Flow in the critical zone, Reynolds numbers 2000 to 4000, is unsta-
ble and a surging type of flow exists. Pipe lines should be designed
to avoid operation in the critical zone since head losses cannot be
calculated accurately in this zone. In addition, the unstable flow
results in pressure surges and water hammer which may be exces-
sively high. In the transition zone, the degree of turbulence increas-
es as the Reynolds number increases. However, due to the smooth
inside surface of plastic pipe, complete turbulence rarely exists.
Most pipe systems are designed to operate in the transition zone.
TABLE 45
FORMULAS FOR HEAD LOSS CALCULATIONS
۲BRASS
GLASS
RIVETED AND SPIRAL STEEL
CLAY DRAINAGE TILE
CONCRETE
CONCRETE LINED
CONCRETE-RUBBLE SURFACE
PVC
WOOD
“n” RANGE
MANNING EQUATION
The Manning roughness factor is another equation used to deter-
mine friction loss in hydraulic flow. Like the Hazen-Williams C fac-
tor, the Manning “n” factor is an empirical number that defines the
interior wall smoothness of a pipe. PVC pipe has an “n” value that
ranges from 0.008 to 0.012 from laboratory testing. Comparing with
cast iron with a range of 0.011 to 0.015, PVC is at least 37.5 per-
cent more efficient, or another way to express this would be to have
equal flow with the PVC pipe size being one-third smaller than the
cast iron. The following table gives the range of “n” value for various
piping materials.
۲
dVw
R=
۲
h= .0311
PIPE MATERIAL
Table 46
Friction Factor, f
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ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION
۶۴
ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION
OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
x ∆L= 0.360
TABLE 47
EXPANSION COEFFICIENT
Material Y value (in/10°F/100ft)
FRP (Epoxy and Vinylester) .100
PVC .360
CPVC .456
Fuseal (PP) 1-1/2 – 6 in. .600
Fuseal (PP) 8, 10, 12 in. .732
Proseal (PP) .732
Proline (PP) 1.000
Polyethylene (PE) 1.250
Superproline (PVDF) 0.800
Generally, stresses due to expansion and contraction of a pip-
ing system can be reduced or eliminated through frequent
changes in direction or through the installation of expansion
loops. Loops, as depicted in Figure 7, are fabricated with 4
elbows and straight pipe and are much less expensive than
teflon expansion joints. The loop sizing formula is as follows:
R = 1.44 √D ∆L
Where: R = Expansion loop leg length in feet
D = Nominal outside diameter (O.D.) of pipe
in inches
∆L = Change in length in inches due to
expansion or contraction
EXAMPLE:
How much expansion can be expected in a 300 foot straight
run of 6 inch PVC Sch. 80 pipe that will be installed at 80°F,
operated at 110°F, and will experience a 50°F minimum in
winter and 120°F maximum in summer? How long should the
expansion loop legs be to compensate for the resultant
expansion and contraction?
(۱۲۰-۵۰) ۳۰۰
۱۰ ۱۰۰
= ۰٫۳۶۰ x 7.0 x 3
= ۷٫۵۶ inches change in length
R = 1.44 √D ∆L
= ۱٫۴۴ √۶٫۶۲۵ x 7.56
= ۱٫۴۴ x 7.08
= ۱۰٫۲۰ Feet
∆L= x
EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION OF PLASTIC PIPE
Plastics, like other piping materials, undergo dimensional
changes as a result of temperature variations above and
below the installation temperature. In most cases, piping
should be allowed to move unrestrained in the piping
support system between desired anchor points without
abrasion, cutting or restriction of the piping. Excessive pip-
ing movement and stresses between anchor points must be
compensated for and eliminated by installing expansion
loops, offsets, changes in direction or teflon bellows expan-
sion joints. (See Figure 7 for installed examples.)
If movement resulting from these dimensional changes is
restricted by adjacent equipment, improper pipe clamping
and support, inadequate expansion compensation, or by a
vessel to which the pipe is attached, the resultant stresses
and forces may cause damage to the equipment or piping.
A. Calculating Dimensional Change and Expansion
Loop Size
The extent of expansion or contraction (∆L) is dependent
upon the piping material of construction and its coefficient of
linear expansion (Y), the length of straight run being consid-
ered (L), and the temperature that the piping will possibly
experience (T 1 – T 2 ). The worst possible situations for
maximum and minimum temperatures must be consid-
ered. The formula for determining change in pipe length due
to temperature change is:
Y (T 1 – T 2 ) L
۱۰ ۱۰۰
Where: ∆L = Dimensional change due to thermal
expansion or contraction (inches).
Y = Expansion coefficient (inches/10°F/100 ft)
See Table 47
(T 1 – T 2 ) = Temperature differential (degrees F)
L = Length of straight pipe run being
considered (Feet)
Figure 7
ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION
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۶۵
TEMP.
CHANGE
∆T°F
LENGTH OF RUN IN FEET
ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION
OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
Table 58
RESTRAINT FORCE “F” (LB.) Copolymer Polypropylene
Schedule 80
Table 59
RESTRAINT FORCE “F” (LB.) PVDF Schedule 80
Table 57
RESTRAINT FORCE “F” (LB.) CPVC Schedule 80
Table 56
RESTRAINT FORCE “F” (LB.) – PVC Type 1
Schedule 40 and 80.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION
۶۸
If 0.100 in. is chosen arbitrarily as the permissible sag (y)
between supports, then:
L 4 = 18.48
Where:
W = Weight of Pipe + Weight of Liquid, lb./in.
For a pipe I = π (Do 4 – Di 4 )
۶۴
Where:
Do = Outside diameter of the pipe, in.
Di = Inside diameter of the pipe, in.
Then:
L = .907 E (Do 4 – Di 4 ) 1/4 = .976 E (Do 4 – Di 4 )
W W
A. HANGERS
Plastic piping hangers must allow axial movement between
anchor points. Hangers must prevent transverse movement
and in conjunction with anchors, prevent point loading of the
piping. Figures 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 on page 70 are exam-
ples of types of hangers, anchors and support which may be
used. Sleeving plastic piping at horizontal support points
with a plastic pipe one pipe size larger which will allow unre-
stricted movement is recommended. Anchors should be
placed at tees, valves, and desired locations to create sec-
tions of predictable expansion and contraction in the piping
system.
Vertical lines must also be supported at proper intervals so
that the fitting at the lower end is not overloaded. The sup-
ports should not exert a compressive strain on the pipe such
as the double-bolt type. Riser clamps squeeze the pipe and
are not recommended. If possible, each clamp should be
located just below a coupling or other fitting so that the
shoulder of the coupling provides bearing support to the
clamp.
B. SUPPORT SPACING OF PLASTIC PIPE
When thermoplastic piping systems are installed above-
ground, they must be properly supported to avoid unneces-
sary stresses and possible sagging.
Horizontal runs require the use of hangers spaced approxi-
mately as indicated in tables for individual material shown
below. Note that additional support is required as tempera-
tures increase. Continuous support can be accomplished by
the use of a smooth structural angle or channel.
Where the pipe is exposed to impact damage, protective
shields should be installed.
Tables are based on the maximum deflection of a uniformly
loaded, continuously supported beam calculated from:
y = .00541
Where:
y = Deflection or sag, in.
w = Weight per unit length, lb/in.
L = Support spacing, in.
E = Modulus of elasticity at given temp. lb/in 2
I = Moment of inertia, in. 4
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
SCHEDULE 40 PVC
SCHEDULE 80 PVC
Table 60
SUPPORT SPACING “L” (FT.) – PVC
Table 61
SUPPORT SPACING “L” (FT.) – CPVC Schedule 80
ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION
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۶۹
Support spacing subject to change with SDR piping systems
and different manufacturers’resins. See manufacturers sup-
port spacing guide prior to installation.
NOTE: All tables shown are based in .100 inch SAG
between supports.
Support spacing subject to change with SDR piping systems
and different manufacturers’resins. See manufacturers sup-
port spacing guide prior to installation.
PIPE SIZE
(IN.)

ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION
OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
Table 62
SUPPORT SPACING “L” (FT.) – Polypro Schedule 80
Table 63
SUPPORT SPACING “L”(FT.) – Proline & Super Proline
Table 64
SUPPORT SPACING “L” (FT.) – PVDF Schedule 80
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
TEMPERATURE
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION

ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION
OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
PLASTICS AND FIRE (continued)
The surface burning characteristics of building materials are based
upon UBC 42-1 Standards and ASTM E-84 testing to provide flame
and smoke spread information of plastic material found on page 41.
All plastics melt before they burn when exposed to an open flame,
and generate toxic carbon monoxide, non-toxic carbon dioxide,
water vapor by-products, and dense smoke. PVC and CPVC also
release toxic hydrogen chloride when burned. PVDF and other flu-
orocarbons release hydrogen fluoride. ABS, nylon and other nitro-
gen containing polymers release hydrogen cyanide.
An Underwriters Lab approved kaolin clay thermal insulation cloth,
which will fireproof any plastic piping system to a 0 flame spread
and 0 smoke spread per ASTM E-84 testing, has been used effec-
tively to meet fire codes.
TABLE 66 MAXIMUM FLAME-SPREAD CLASS
(UBC 1994)
Occupancy Enclosed Vertical Other Rooms
Group Description Exitways Exitways or Areas
A Stadium I II II
E High Schools I II III
I Hospital I I II
H-1 High Explosive I II III
H-2 Moderate Explosive
H-3 High Fire
H-4 Repair Garage, Not B below
H-5 Aircraft Repair, Not B below
H-6 Semiconductor Fab and
Research and Development
H-7 Health Hazards – Highly Corrosive
or Toxic
B-1 Gas Stations I II III
B-2 Office Buildings – No highly flammable
or combustible materials
B-3 Airplane Hangar, No open flame
B-4 Power Plant, Factories using
non-combustible and non-explosive materials
R-1 Hotel, Apartment I II III
R-3 Houses III III III
TABLE 65 FLAME-SPREAD CLASSIFICATION
(UBC 1994)
Class Flame-Spread Index
I 0-25
II 26-75
III 76-200
structures considering the entire weight of the tanks and its
contents.” Seismic forces and wind forces tend to topple a
tank. These forces must be calculated by a registered engi-
neer and an approved restraint system utilized when
installing a tank.
SEISMIC DESIGNS FOR STORAGE TANKS
The Uniform Building Code 1994 edition states: “Flat bottom
tanks or other tanks with supported bottoms found at or
below grade shall be designed to resist the seismic forces
calculated using the procedures in Section 2312 (i) for rigid
SEISMIC ZONE MAP OF THE UNITED STATES
ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION
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۷۱
SUNLIGHT WEATHERING AND PAINTING
Plastic pipe and fittings have varying resistance to weather-
ing. PVC, CPVC, and Polypropylene undergo surface oxi-
dation and embrittlement by exposure to sunlight over a peri-
od of several years. The surface oxidation is evident by a
change in pipe color from gray to white. Oxidized piping
does not lose any of its pressure capability. It does, howev-
er, become much more susceptible to impact damage.
PVDF is unaffected by sunlight but is translucent when
unpigmented.
PVC and CPVC pipe and fittings can be easily protected
from ultraviolet oxidation by painting with a heavily pigment-
ed, exterior water base latex paint. The color of the paint is
of no particular importance, as the pigment acts as an ultra-
violet screen and prevents sunlight damage. White or some
other light color is recommended as it helps reduce pipe
temperature. The latex paint must be thickly applied as an
opaque coating on the pipe and fittings that have been
cleaned well and very lightly sanded.
Polypropylene and PVDF pipe and fittings are very difficult to
paint properly and should be protected by insulation.
THERMAL EFFECTS ON PLASTICS
The physical properties of thermoplastic piping is signifi-
cantly related to its operating temperature. As the operating
temperature falls, the pipe’s stiffness and tensile strength
increases, increasing the pipe’s pressure capacity and its
ability to resist earth-loading deflection. With the drop in
temperature, impact strength is reduced.
With an increase in temperature, there is a decrease in pipe
tensile strength and stiffness and a reduction in pressure
capability, as outlined in the Temperature-Pressure charts on
page 44.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, HEAT TRACING AND
INSULATION
Plastic piping, unlike metal, is a very poor conductor of heat.
Thermal conductivity is expressed as BTU/hr./sq.ft./°F/in.
where BTU/hr. or British Thermal Unit per hour is energy
required to raise temperature of 1 pound of water (12 gallons
÷ specific gravity) one Fahrenheit degree in one hour. Sq. ft.
refers to 1 square foot where heat is being transferred. Inch
refers to 1 inch of pipe wall thickness. As pipe wall increases,
thermal conductivity decreases.
A comparison to steel, aluminum, and copper can be seen
on page 41. Copper, a good conductor of heat, will lose
۲,۶۱۰ BTU/hr per square foot of surface area with a wall
thickness of 1 inch. PVC will lose only 1.2 BTU/hr! If wall
thickness is reduced to 0.250 inches, the heat loss increases
۴ times.
Although plastics are poor conductors of heat, heat tracing
of plastic piping may be necessary to maintain a constant
elevated temperature of a viscous liquid, prevent liquid freez-
ing, or to prevent a liquid, such as 50% sodium hydroxide,
from crystallizing in a pipeline at 68°F. Electric heat tracing
with self-regulating, temperature-sensing tape such as
Raychem Chemelex Autotrace will maintain a 90°F temper-
ature to prevent sodium hydroxide from freezing. The tape
should be S-pattern wrapped on the pipe to allow pipe
repairs and to avoid deflection caused by heating one side
of the pipe. Heat tracing should be applied directly on the
pipe within the insulation, and must not exceed the temper-
ature-pressure-chemical resistance design of the system.
Insulation to further reduce plastic piping heat loss is avail-
able in several different forms from several manufacturers.
The most popular is a two half foam insulation installed with-
in a snap together with aluminum casing. Insulation can also
provide weathering protection and fireproofing to plastic pip-
ing and is discussed later.
ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT STERILIZATION
UV sterilizers for killing bacteria in deionized water are
becoming common. The intense light generated will stress
crack PVC, CPVC, polypropylene, and PVDF piping over
time that is directly connected to the sterilizer. PVDF goes
through a cross-linking of H-F causing a discoloration of the
fitting and pipe material, and joint stress cracking.
VIBRATION ISOLATION
Plastic piping will conduct vibration from pumping and other
sources of resonance frequencies, such as liquid flow
through a partially open valve. Vibration isolation is best
accomplished using a flanged, teflon, or thin rubber bellows
expansion joint installed near the pump discharge or source
of vibration. Metallic or thick rubber expansion joints lack the
flexibility to provide flange movement and vibration isolation
and should not be used in plastic piping systems. The prop-
er bellows expansion joint will also provide for pipe system
flexibility against a stationary mounted pump, storage tank,
or equipment during an earthquake to reduce pipe breakage.
ABOVE-GROUND INSTALLATION
OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۷۲
BELOW-GROUND INSTALLATION
INTRODUCTION
Many problems experienced by above-ground plastic piping
such as weathering/painting, expansion/contraction, pipe
support/hangers, fire, and external mechanical damage are
virtually eliminated by proper below-ground installation. The
depth and width of trenching, bedding and backfilling, thrust
blocking, snaking, air and pressure relief, and size and wall
thickness of pipe must be considered.
TRENCHING AND BEDDING
DEPTH
In installing underground piping systems, the depth of the
trench is determined by the intended service and by local
conditions (as well as by local, state and national codes that
may require a greater trench depth and cover than are tech-
nically necessary).
Underground pipes are subjected to external loads caused
by the weight of the backfill material and by loads applied at
the surface of the fill.These can range from static to dynamic
loads.
Static loads comprise the weight of the soil above the top of
the pipe plus any additional material that might be stacked
above ground. An important point is that the load on a flex-
ible pipe will be less than on a rigid pipe buried in the same
manner. This is because the flexible conduit transfers part of
the load to the surrounding soil and not the reverse. Soil
loads are minimal with narrow trenches until a pipe depth of
۱۰ feet is attained.
Dynamic loads are loads due to moving vehicles such as
trucks, trains and other heavy equipment. For shallow burial
conditions live loads should be considered and added to sta-
tic loads, but at depths greater than 10 feet, live loads have
very little effect.
Pipe intended for potable water service should be buried at
least 12 inches below the maximum expected frost penetra-
tion.
WIDTH
The width of the trench should be sufficient to provide ade-
quate room for “snaking” ۱/۲ to 2-1/2 inch nominal diameter
pipe from side to side along the trench bottom, as described
below, and for placing and compacting the side fills. The
trench width can be held to a minimum with most pressure
piping materials by joining the pipe at the surface and then
lowering it into the trench after adequate joint strength has
been obtained.
BEDDING
The bottom of the trench should provide a firm, continuous
bearing surface along the entire length of the pipe run. It
should be relatively smooth and free of rocks. Where hard-
pan, ledge rock or boulders are present, it is recommended
that the trench bottom be cushioned with at least four (4)
inches of sand or compacted fine-grained soils.
SNAKING
To compensate for thermal expansion and contraction when
laying small diameter pipe in hot weather, the snaking tech-
nique of offsetting 1/2 to 2-1/2 inch nominal diameter pipe
with relation to the trench center line is recommended.
A. 1/2 inch to 2-1/2 inch nominal diameter. When the
installation temperature is substantially lower than the oper-
ating temperature, the pipe should, if possible, be installed
with straight alignment and brought up to operating temper-
ature after joints are properly cured but before backfilling.
This procedure will permit expansion of the pipe to be
accommodated by a “snaking” action.
When the installation temperature is substantially above the
operating temperature, the pipe should be installed by
snaking in the trench. For example, a 100-foot length of PVC
Type 1 pipe will expand or contract about 3/4 inch for each
۲۰°F temperature change. On a hot summer day, the direct
rays of the sun on the pipe can drive the surface tempera-
ture up to 150°F. At night, the air temperature may drop to
۷۰°F. In this hypothetical case, the pipe would undergo a
temperature change of 80°F and every 100 feet of pipe
would contract 3 inches overnight. This degree of contrac-
tion would put such a strain on newly cemented pipe joints
that a poorly made joint might pull apart.
A practical and economical method is to cement the line
together at the side of the trench during the normal working
day. When the newly cemented joint has dried, the pipe is
snaked from one side of the trench to the other in gentle
alternate curves. This added length will compensate for any
contraction after the trench is backfilled. See Figure 13.
B. 3 inch and larger nominal diameter pipes should be
installed in straight alignment. Before backfilling to the
extent that longitudinal movement is restricted, the pipe tem-
perature should be adjusted to within 15°F of the operating
temperature, if possible.
BELOW-GROUND INSTALLATION
OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPE
BELOW-GROUND INSTALLATION
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۷۳
DETERMINING SOIL LOADING FOR FLEXIBLE
PLASTIC PIPE, SCHEDULE 80
Underground pipes are subjected to external loads caused
by the weight of the backfill material and by loads applied at
the surface of the fill. These can range from static to dynam-
ic loads.
Static loads comprise the weight of the soil above the top of
the pipe plus any additional material that might be stacked
above ground. An important point is that the load on a flex-
ible pipe will be less than on a rigid pipe buried in the same
manner. This is because the flexible conduit transfers part of
the load to the surrounding soil and not the reverse. Soil
loads are minimal with narrow trenches until a pipe depth of
۱۰ feet is attained.
Dynamic loads are loads due to moving vehicles such as
trucks, trains and other heavy equipment. For shallow burial
conditions live loads should be considered and added to sta-
tic loads, but at depths greater than 10 feet, live loads have
very little effect.
Soil load and pipe resistance for other thermoplastic piping
products can be calculated using the following formula or
using Tables 68 & 69.
Wc’ = ∆X(El + .061 E’r 3 )80
r 3
Wc’ = Load Resistance of the Pipe, lb./ft.
∆x = Deflection in Inches @ 5% (.05 x I.D.)
E = Modulus of Elasticity
t = Pipe Wall Thickness, in.
r = Mean Radius of Pipe (O.D. -t)/2
E’ = Modulus of Passive Soil Resistance, psi
H = Height of Fill Above Top of Pipe, ft.
I = Moment of Inertia t 3
۱۲
FIGURE 13
Table shown below gives the required loop length in feet and
offset in inches for various temperature variations.
NOTE: H20 wheel load is 16,000 lb./wheel
Snaking of thermoplastic pipe within trench to compensate
for thermal expansion and contraction.
PIPE
SIZE
H20 WHEEL LOADS FOR VARIOUS
DEPTHS OF PIPE (LB./LIN.FT.)
۲
۳
۴
۶
۸
۱۰
۱۲
۲
۳۰۹
۴۴۲
۵۷۴
۸۳۷
۱۱۰۲
۱۳۶۱
۱۶۰۱
۴
۸۲
۱۱۸
۱۵۴
۲۲۴
۲۹۸
۳۷۱
۴۴۰
۶
۳۸
۵۶
۷۲
۱۰۶
۱۴۱
۱۷۶
۲۱۰
۸
۱۸
۳۲
۴۲
۶۱
۸۲
۱۰۱
۱۲۰
۱۰
۱۶
۲۱
۲۷
۴۰
۵۳
۶۶
۷۸
TABLE 68
LIVE LOAD FOR BURIED FLEXIBLE PIPE (LB/LIN.FT)
LOOP OFFSET (IN.)
۲۰°
۳٫۵
۹٫۰
۱۸٫۰
۴۰°
۵٫۲۰
۱۲٫۷۵
۲۶٫۰۰
۹۰°
۷٫۷۵
۱۹٫۲۵
۴۰٫۰۰
۳۰°
۴٫۵
۱۱٫۰
۲۲٫۰
۵۰°
۵٫۷۵
۱۴٫۲۵
۲۹٫۰۰
۶۰°
۶٫۲۵
۱۵٫۵۰
۳۱٫۵۰
۷۰°
۶٫۷۵
۱۷٫۰۰
۳۵٫۰۰
۸۰°
۷٫۲۵
۱۸٫۰۰
۳۷٫۰۰
SNAKING
LENGTH
(FT.)
MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE VARIATION (°F) BETWEEN
TIME OF CEMENTING AND FINAL BACKFILLING
۱۰°
۲٫۵
۶٫۵
۱۳٫۰
۲۰
۵۰
۱۰۰
۱۰۰°
۸٫۰۰
۲۰٫۲۵
۴۲٫۰۰
BELOW-GROUND INSTALLATION
OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
Table 67
SNAKING LENGTH VS. OFFSET (IN.) TO
COMPENSATE FOR THERMAL CONTRACTION
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۷۴
BELOW-GROUND INSTALLATION
Wc’ = LOAD RESISTANCE OF
PIPE (LB./FT.)
Wc = SOIL LOADS AT
VARIOUS TRENCH
WIDTHS AT TOP OF
PIPE (LB./FT.)
SCHEDULE 40
PIPE
SCHEDULE 80
PIPE
E’=۲۰۰ E’=۷۰۰ E’=۲۰۰ E’=۷۰۰
NOM.
SIZE
(IN.)
H
(FT) 2 FT
۳ FT 4 FT 5 FT
۱-۱/۲
۲
۲-۱/۲
۳
۳-۱/۲
۴
۵
۶
۸
۱۰
۱۲
۱۰۸۴
۸۷۹
۱۳۴۴
۱۱۲۶
۱۰۲۱
۹۶۹
۸۹۶
۸۸۰
۹۱۱
۹۷۶
۱۰۵۸
۲۸۰۹
۲۳۴۴
۳۲۱۸
۲۸۱۸
۲۵۹۱
۲۴۵۶
۲۲۷۲
۲۴۶۹
۲۳۶۰
۲۵۹۷
۲۹۰۹
۱۲۸۲
۱۱۳۰
۱۶۴۷
۱۵۰۰
۱۴۵۳
۱۴۵۹
۱۵۱۱
۱۶۲۰
۱۸۸۵
۲۱۹۸
۲۵۱۵
۱۰۶
۱۳۸
۱۴۴

۱۳۲
۱۷۲
۱۸۰

۱۶۰
۲۰۴
۲۱۶

۱۹۶
۲۵۶
۲۶۶

۲۲۳
۲۸۴
۳۰۰

۲۵۲
۳۲۸
۳۴۲

۳۱۰
۳۹۵
۴۱۷

۳۷۱
۴۸۴
۵۰۳

۴۸۳
۶۳۰
۶۵۶

۶۰۲
۷۸۵
۸۱۷

۷۱۴
۹۳۱
۹۶۹

۱۲۵
۱۸۲
۲۰۷
۲۱۴
۱۵۶
۲۲۷
۲۵۹
۲۶۷
۱۹۱
۲۷۳
۳۰۶
۳۲۳
۲۳۱
۳۳۶
۲۶۶
۳۹۴
۲۶۶
۳۸۰
۴۲۶
۴۵۰
۲۹۷
۴۳۲
۴۹۳
۵۰۶
۳۷۰
۵۲۹
۵۹۲
۶۲۵
۴۳۷
۶۳۶
۷۲۵
۷۴۵
۵۶۹
۸۲۸
۹۴۵
۹۷۰
۷۱۰
۱۰۳۲
۱۱۷۷
۱۲۰۹
۹۴۲
۱۲۲۵
۱۳۹۷
۱۴۳۴
۱۳۶
۲۱۲
۲۵۴
۲۶۹
۱۷۰
۲۶۵
۳۱۷
۳۳۷
۲۱۰
۳۲۱
۳۷۷
۴۰۸
۲۵۲
۳۹۲
۳۸۴
۴۹۷
۲۹۳
۴۴۶
۵۲۴
۵۶۸
۳۲۴
۵۴۰
۶۰۳
۶۳۹
۴۰۷
۶۲۱
۷۳۰
۷۹۰
۴۷۷
۷۴۲
۸۸۸
۹۴۱
۶۲۱
۹۶۶
۱۱۵۶
۱۲۲۵
۷۷۴
۱۲۰۴
۱۴۰۵
۱۵۲۷
۹۱۹
۱۴۲۹
۱۷۰۹
۱۸۱۱
۱۵۲
۲۳۳
۳۱۴
۳۱۸
۱۹۰
۲۹۱
۳۹۲
۳۹۸
۲۳۰
۳۵۲
۴۷۴
۴۸۲
۲۸۰
۴۲۹
۴۶۹
۵۸۶
۳۲۰
۴۹۰
۶۶۰
۶۷۰
۳۶۰
۵۵۱
۷۴۳
۷۵۴
۴۴۵
۶۸۱
۹۱۸
۹۳۲
۵۳۰
۸۱۲
۱۰۹۳
۱۱۱۰
۶۹۰
۱۰۵۷
۱۴۲۳
۱۴۴۵
۸۶۰
۱۳۱۷
۱۷۷۴
۱۸۰۱
۱۰۲۰
۱۵۶۲
۲۱۰۴
۲۱۳۶
TABLE 69
SOIL LOAD AND PIPE RESISTANCE FOR
FLEXIBLE THERMOPLASTIC PIPE
PVC Schedule 40 and 80 Pipe
NOTE 1: Figures are calculated from minimum soil resistance val-
ues (E’ = ۲۰۰ psi for uncompacted sandy clay foam) and compact-
ed soil (E’ = ۷۰۰ for side-fill that is compacted to 90% or more of
Proctor Density for distance of two pipe diameters on each side of
the pipe). If Wc’ is less than Wc at a given trench depth and width,
then soil compaction will be necessary.
NOTE 2: These are soil loads only and do not include live loads.
HEAVY TRAFFIC
When plastic pipe is installed beneath streets, railroads, or
other surfaces that are subjected to heavy traffic and result-
ing shock and vibration, it should be run within a protective
BELOW-GROUND INSTALLATION
OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۷۵
TESTING
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TESTING
Plastic pipe is not designed to provide structural strength
beyond sustaining internal pressures up to its designed
hydrostatic pressure rating and normal soil loads. Anchors,
valves, and other connections must be independently sup-
ported to prevent added shearing and bending stresses on
the pipe.
RISERS
The above piping design rule applies also where pipe is
brought out of the ground. Above-ground valves or other
connections must be supported independently. If pipe is
exposed to external damage, it should be protected with a
separate, rigidly supported metal pipe sleeve at the danger
areas. Thermoplastic pipe should not be brought above
ground where it is exposed to high temperatures. Elevated
temperatures can lower the pipes pressure rating below
design levels.
LOCATING BURIED PIPE
The location of plastic pipelines should be accurately record-
ed at the time of installation. Since pipe is a non-conductor,
it does not respond to the electronic devices normally used
to locate metal pipelines. However, a copper or galvanized
wire can be spiraled around, taped to, or laid alongside or
just above the pipe during installation to permit the use of a
locating device, or use marker tape.
NOTE: For additional information see ASTM D-2774, “Underground
Installation of Thermoplastic Pressure Piping.”
TESTING THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
We strongly recommend that all plastic piping systems be
hydrostatically tested as described below before being put
into service. Water is normally used as the test medium.
Note: Do not pressure test with compressed air or gas!
Severe damage or bodily injury can result.
The water is introduced through a pipe of 1-inch diameter or
smaller at the lowest point in the system. An air relief valve
should be provided at the highest point in the system to
bleed off any air that is present.
The piping system should gradually be brought up to the
desired pressure rating using a pressure bypass valve to
assure against over pressurization.The test pressure should
in no event exceed the rated operating pressure of the low-
est rated component in the system such as a 150-pound
flange.
INITIAL LOW-PRESSURE TEST
The initial low-pressure hydrostatic test should be applied to
the system after shallow back-filling which leaves joints
exposed. Shallow back-filling eliminates expansion/contrac-
tion problems. The test should last long enough to deter-
mine that there are no minute leaks anywhere in the system.
PRESSURE GAUGE METHOD
Where time is not a critical factor, the reading of a regular
pressure gauge over a period of several hours will reveal any
small leaks. If the gauge indicates leakage, that entire run
of piping must then be visually inspected – paying special
attention to the joints – to locate the source of the leak.
VISUAL INSPECTION METHOD
After the line is pressurized, it can be visually inspected for
leaks without waiting for the pressure gauge to reveal the
presence or absence of a pressure drop.
DO NOT TEST WITH AIR OR COMPRESSED GAS.
Even though no leaks are found during the initial inspection,
however, it is recommended that the pressure be maintained
for a reasonable length of time. Checking the gauge sever-
al times during this period will reveal any slow developing
leaks.
LOCATE ALL LEAKS
Even though a leak has been found and the pipe or joint has
been repaired, the low-pressure test should be continued
until there is a reasonable certainty that no other leaks are
present. Locating and repairing leaks is very much more dif-
ficult and expensive after the piping system has been buried.
Joints should be exposed during testing.
HIGH-PRESSURE TESTING
Following the successful completion of the low-pressure
test, the system should be high-pressure tested for at least
۱۲ hours. The run of pipe should be more heavily backfilled
to prevent movement of the line under pressure. Since any
leaks that may develop probably will occur at the fitting
joints, these should be left uncovered.
Solvent-cemented piping systems must be fully cured before
pressure testing. For cure times, refer to the solvent cement-
ing instruction tables on page 84.
TEST PRESSURE
The test pressure applied should not exceed: (a) the
designed maximum operating pressure, (b) the designed
pressure rating of the pipe, (c) the designed pressure rating
of any system component, whichever is lowest.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
(۱) Do not test with fluid velocities exceeding 5 ft./sec. since
excessive water hammer could damage the system. (2) Do
not allow any personnel not actually working on the high-
pressure test in the area, in case of a pipe or joint rupture.
(۳) Do not test with air or gas.
TRANSITION FROM PLASTIC TO OTHER
MATERIALS
Transitions from plastic piping to metal piping may be made
with flanges, threaded fittings, or unions. Flanged connec-
tions are limited to 150 psi, and threaded connections are
limited to 50% of the rated pressure of the pipe.
NOTE: When tying into a threaded metal piping system, it is rec-
ommended that a plastic male thread be joined to a metal female
thread. Since the two materials have different coefficients of expan-
sion, the male plastic fitting will actually become tighter within the
female metal fitting when expansion occurs.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۷۶
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
There are six recommended methods of joining thermoplastic
pipe and fittings, each with its own advantages and limitations:
SOLVENT CEMENTING
The most widely used method in Schedule 40 PVC, Schedule 80
PVC and CPVC piping systems as described in ASTM D-2855-
۹۳٫ The O.D. of the pipe and the I.D. of the fitting are primed,
coated with special cement and joined together, as described in
detail below. Knowledge of the principles of solvent cementing is
essential to a good job. These are discussed in the Solvent
Welding Instructions Section.
NOTE: The single most significant cause of improperly or failed
solvent cement joints is lack of solvent penetration or inadequate
primer application.
THREADING
Schedule 80 PVC, CPVC, PVDF, and PP can be threaded with
special pipe dyes for mating with Schedule 80 fittings provided
with threaded connections. Since this method makes the piping
system easy to disassemble, repair, and test, it is often employed
on temporary or take-down piping systems, as well as systems
joining dissimilar materials. However, threaded pipe must be der-
ated by 50 percent from solvent-cemented systems. (Threaded
joints are not recommended for PP pressure applications.)
FLANGES
Flanges are available for joining all thermoplastic piping systems.
They can be joined to the piping either with solvent-cemented or
threaded connections. Flanging offers the same general advan-
tages as threading and consequently is often employed in pip-
ing systems that must frequently be dismantled. The tech-
nique is limited to 150 psi working pressure.
BUTT FUSION
This technique us used to connect all sizes of Polypropylene
(Proline), PVDF (Super Proline) and large diameter Fuseal.Butt
fusion is an easy, efficient fusion method especially in larger
diameters.
SOCKET FUSION
This technique is used to assemble PVDF and polypropylene
pipe and fittings for high-temperature, corrosive-service applica-
tions. (See each material Design Data section for recommend-
ed joining technique.)
FUSEAL HEAT FUSION
R & G Sloane’s Fuseal is a patented method of electrically fus-
ing pipe and fitting into a single homogenous unit. This
advanced technique is used for GSR Fuseal polypropylene cor-
rosive waste-handling systems.
FUSEAL MECHANICAL JOINT
Mechanical Joint polypropylene drainage system is used exten-
sively for accessible smaller sized piping areas.The system, as
the name implies, is a mechanical sealed joint that consists of a
seal-ring, grab-ring, and nut. It is quick and easy to install and
can be disconnected just as easily.You will find it most suitable
for under sink and under counter piping.
JOINING TECHNIQUES
FOR THERMOPLASTIC PIPE
Normal precautions should be taken to prevent excessive
mechanical abuse. However, when unloading pipe from a truck,
for example, it is unwise to drag a length off the tailgate and
allow the free end to crash to the ground. Remember, too, that
SCRATCHES AND GOUGES ON THE PIPE SURFACE CAN
LEAD TO REDUCED PRESSURE-CARRYING CAPACITY.
Standard pipe wrenches should not be used for making up
threaded connections since they can deform or scar the pipe.
Use strap wrenches instead. When using a pipe vise or chuck,
wrap jaws with emery cloth or soft metal.
Pipe should be stored on racks that afford continuous support
and prevent sagging or draping of longer lengths. Burrs and
sharp edges of metal racks should be avoided. Plastic fittings
and flanges should be s˚Á„Bê۴˚ÁÂ’∑ «?Ëkÿ۴*ùÍ◊∑۳)›Ì À۱ÀPÔ ˛
۰ô≈¬.rÚ$\+›jÛ%+)qïÛ¡›&Â۷Ûˆ…$GÆ
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FIELD STACKING
During prolonged field storage of loose pipe, its stacks should
not exceed two feet in height. Bundled pipe may be double-
stacked providing its weight is distributed by its packaging
boards.
HANDLING
Care should be exercised to avoid rough handling of pipe and
fittings. They should not be pushed or pulled over sharp projec-
tions, dropped or have any objects dropped upon them.
Particular care should be taken to avoid kinking or buckling the
pipe. Any kinks or buckles which occur should be removed by
cutting out the entire damaged section as a cylinder. All sharp
edges on a pipe carrier or trailer that could come in contact with
the pipe should be padded; i.e., can use old fire hose or heavy
rubber strips. Only nylon or rope slings should be used for lift-
ing bundles of pipe; chains are not to be used.
INSPECTION
Before installation, all lengths of pipe and fittings should be thor-
oughly inspected for cuts, scratches, gouges, buckling, and any
other imperfections which may have been imparted to the pipe
during shipping, unloading, storing, and stringing. Any pipe or
pre-coupled fittings containing harmful or even questionable
defects should be removed by cutting out the damaged section
as a complete cylinder.
INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
HANDLING & STORAGE PLASTIC PIPE
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۷۷
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
Penetration and softening should be achieved with a suitable
primer such as P70. Primer will penetrate and soften the
surfaces more quickly than cement alone. Primer also pro-
vides a safety factor for the installer, as he can know under
various temperature conditions when he has achieved suffi-
cient softening of the material surfaces. For example, in cold
weather more time and additional applications of primer will
be required.
Solvent cementing is a preferred method of joining rigid PVC
(Polyvinyl Chloride) and CPVC (Chlorinated Polyvinyl
Chloride) pipe and fittings providing a chemically fused joint.
The solvent-cemented joint is the last vital link in the instal-
lation process. It can mean the success or failure of the
whole system. Accordingly, it requires the same profession-
al care and attention that is given to the other components
of the system. Experience shows that most field failures of
plastic piping systems are due to improperly made solvent-
cemented joints.
There are step-by-step procedures on just how to make sol-
vent-cemented joints shown on the following pages.
However, we feel that if the basic principles involved are first
explained and understood, better quality installation can
result with ease. To consistently make good joints, the fol-
lowing basics should be clearly understood by the installer.
۱٫ The joining surfaces must be clean, then softened and
made semi-fluid.
۲٫ Sufficient cement must be applied to fill the gap
between pipe and fittings.
۳٫ Assembly of pipe and fittings must be made while the
surfaces are still wet and fluid.
۴٫ Joint strength develops as the cement dries. In the
tight part of the joint the surfaces will tend to fuse
together. In the loose part the cement will bond to
both surfaces.
INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF SOLVENT CEMENTING
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Cements contain highly volatile solvents which
evaporate rapidly. Avoid breathing the vapors. If
necessary, use a fan to keep the work area clear of
fumes. Avoid skin or eye contact. Do not use near
heat, sparks, or open flame. Do not pressure test
with compressed air or gas! Severe damage or
bodily injury can result.
• Cutting Tool (Saw or Wheel cutter) • Rags (nonsynthetic, i.e.,cotton)
• Deburring Tool (knife or file) • Cement and Primer Applicators
• Applicator Can or Bucket • Purple Primer
• Solvent Cement • Tool Tray
• Notched Boards
JOINING EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS
More than sufficient cement to fill the loose part of the joint
must be applied. Besides filling the gap, adequate cement
layers will penetrate the surface and also remain wet until
the joint is assembled. Prove this for yourself. Apply on the
top surface of a piece of pipe two separate layers of cement.
First, flow on a heavy layer of cement, then alongside it a
thin brushed out layer. Test the layers every 15 seconds or
so by a gentle tap with your finger. You will note that the thin
layer becomes tacky and dries quickly (probably within 15
seconds). The heavy layer will remain wet much longer.
Now check for penetration a few minutes after applying
these layers. Scrape them with a knife. The thin layer will
have achieved little or no penetration, the heavy one much
more penetration.
As the solvent dissipates, the cement layer and the softened
surfaces will harden with a corresponding increase in joint
strength. A good joint will take the required pressure long
before the joint is fully dry and final strength is obtained. In
the tight (fused) part of the joint, strength will develop more
quickly than in the loose (bonded) part of the joint.
Information about the development of the bond strength of
solvent-cemented joints is available on request.
If the cement coating on the pipe and fittings are wet and
fluid when assembly takes place, they will tend to flow
together and become one cement layer. Also, if the cement
is wet the surface beneath them will be soft, and these soft-
ened surfaces in the tight part of the joint will tend to fuse
together.
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Cement Coatings of Sufficient Thickness
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Surfaces Must Be Assembled
While They Are Wet and Soft
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FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۷۸
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
(e) Use #719 gray, extra-heavy-bodied cement for Schedule
۴۰, ۸۰, and all class or schedule sizes over 8” size.
CPVC
(a) Use #P-70 purple primer for all sizes of CPVC pipe and
fittings except copper tube size CPVC (which requires
#P-72 or 729).
(b) Use #714 orange or gray, heavy-bodied cement for all
sizes of CPVC pipe and fittings.
۲٫ Obtain the correct primer applicators. (See Harrington’s
Catalog for applicators.) Generally, the applicator
should be about 1/2 the pipe diameter.
(a) Use #DP-75, 3/4” diameter, dauber (Supplied with pint
size cans of P-70 primer.) for pipe sizes thru 1 1/4”.
(b) Use #DP-150, 1 1/2” diameter, dauber for pipe sizes
through 3”.
(c) Use #4020 cotton string mop for pipe sizes 4” and larger.
Low VOC 724 cement for hypochlorite service.
Weld-on 724 CPVC low VOC cement is a gray, medium bodied,
fast setting solvent cement used for joining CPVC industrial piping
through 12” diameter, and is specially formulated for services that
include caustics and hypochlorites.
۳٫ Obtain the correct solvent cement applicators. Generally,
the applicator should be about 1/2 the pipe diameter.
(a) Use #DP-75 3/4” diameter dauber or a natural bristle
brush for pipe sizes 1/2” through 1-1/4”
(b) Use #DP-150 1-1/2” diameter dauber for pipe sizes 3/4”
through 3”. (۱” natural bristle brush may be used for
pipe sizes up to 2”.).
(c) Use #3020, 2” diameter, “Roll-A-Weld” roller for 3”
through 6” pipe sizes.
(d) Use #7020 7” long roller or #4020 large cotton swab for
۶” through 12” pipe sizes.
(e) Use extra-large natural bristle paint brush to flow
cement onto pipe larger than 12”.
INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC AND CPVC PIPE AND FITTINGS
Before commencing work, this entire section
should be studied and thoroughly understood. It
is important that workers making joints be knowl-
edgeable of these instructions and follow them
carefully. Do not take shortcuts or omit any of the
detailed steps.
HANDLING CEMENTS AND PRIMERS
Cements and primers contain highly volatile solvents which
evaporate rapidly. Avoid breathing the vapors. If necessary,
use a fan to keep the work area clear of fumes. Avoid skin
or eye contact. Keep cans closed when not actually in use.
Solvent cements are formulated to be used “as received” in
the original containers. If the cement thickens much beyond
its original consistency, discard it. Cement should be free
flowing, not jelly-like. Do not attempt to dilute it with thinner,
as this may change the character of the cement and make it
ineffective. Caution: Solvent cement has limited shelf life,
usually one year for CPVC and two years for PVC. Date of
manufacture is usually stamped on the bottom of the can. Do
not use the cement beyond the period recommended by the
manufacturer. Always keep solvent cements and primers out
of the reach of children.
SELECTION OF CEMENTS, PRIMERS AND APPLICATORS
۱٫ Obtain the correct primer and solvent cement for the product
being installed. (See Harrington’s Catalog for detailed infor-
mation on solvent cements and primers.)
PVC
(a) Use #P-70 purple primer for all sizes of PVC pipe and fit-
tings.
(b) Use #710 clear, light-bodied cement with PVC Schedule
۴۰ fittings having an interference fit through 2” size. Not
for use on Schedule 80.
(c) Use #705 clear, medium-bodied cement with PVC
Schedule 40 fittings having an interference fit though 6”
size. Not for use on Schedule 80.
(d) Use #711 gray, heavy-bodied cement with PVC
Schedule 80 fittings through 8” and Schedule 40 fittings
۶” and 8” size.
KNOW YOUR MATERIAL
There are two general types of rigid vinyl materials, PVC and
CPVC. Fitting are made of both materials and in both
Schedule 40 and Schedule 80 weights.
Because of the difference in socket dimensions between the
Schedule 40 and Schedule 80 fittings, more care must be
taken with the Schedule 80 fittings and the cure schedules
are different. Determine before proceeding with the job
which type of vinyl plastic you are working with and which
weight of fitting.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۷۹
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
۱٫ Cut pipe square to desired length using a hand saw and
miter box or mechanical cutoff saw. A diagonal cut reduces
the bonding area in the most effective part of the joint.
۲٫ Plastic tubing cutters may also be used for cutting plastic
pipe. However, most produce a raised bead at the end of the
pipe. This must be removed with a file, knife, or beveling
tool. A raised bead will wipe the cement away when the pipe
is inserted into the fitting.
PREPARATION
INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC AND CPVC PIPE AND FITTINGS
Condition pipe and fittings to the same temperature.
۳٫ Large diameter pipe should be cut and chamfered with
appropriate power tools. See Harrington’s Products Catalog
for tools.
۵٫ Clean and dry pipe and fitting socket of all dirt, moisture,
and grease. Use a clean, dry rag.
Check pipe and fitting for fit (dry) before cementing. For prop-
er interference fit, the pipe must go into the fitting 1/3 to
۳/۴ of the way to the stop. Too tight of a fit is not desirable.
You must be able to fully bottom the pipe into the socket after
it has been softened with primer. If the pipe and fitting are
not out of round, a satisfactory joint can be made if there is
a “net” fit. That is, the pipe bottoms in the fitting socket with
no interference, but without slop. All pipe and fitting must
conform to ASTM or other standards.
• For 3/8” to 8” pipe – 1/16” to 3/32”
• For 10” to 30” pipe – 1/4” to 5/8”
۴٫ Chamfer end of the pipe as shown above.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۸۰
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
۷٫ The purpose of the primer is to penetrate and soften the
surfaces so that they can fuse together. The proper use of
the primer and checking of its softening effect provides
assurance that the surfaces are prepared for fusion in a wide
variety of temperatures and working conditions.
PRIMING
Before starting the installation, we recommend checking the
penetration and softening effect of the primer on a scrap
piece of the material you will be working with.This should be
done where the temperature and environmental conditions
are the same as those where the actual installation will take
place. The effect of the primer on the surface will vary with
both time and temperature. To check for proper penetration
and softening, apply primer as indicated in step number 9.
After applying primer, use a knife or sharp scraper and draw
the edge over the coated surface. Proper penetration has
been made if you can scratch or scrape a few thousandths
of an inch of the primed surface away.
۸٫ Using the correct applicator as previously mentioned,
apply primer freely with a scrubbing motion to the fitting
socket, keeping the surface and applicator wet until the sur-
face has been softened.This usually requires 5-15 seconds.
More time is needed for hard surfaces (found in belled-end
pipe and fittings made from pipe stock) and in cold weather
conditions. Redip the applicator in the primer as required.
When the surface is primed, remove any puddles of primer
from the socket. Puddles of primer can weaken the pipe
and/or joint itself.
CEMENTING
۹٫ Apply the primer to the end of the pipe equal to the depth
of the fitting socket. Application should be made in the same
manner as was done to the fitting socket. Be sure the entire
surface is well dissolved or softened.
۱۰٫ Apply a second application of primer to the fitting socket
and immediately, while the surfaces are still wet, apply the
appropriate solvent cement. Time becomes important at this
stage. Do not allow cement or primer to dry or start forming
film on the surface.
INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC AND CPVC PIPE AND FITTINGS
۱۱٫ Apply a liberal coat of solvent cement to the male end of
the pipe. Flow the cement on with the applicator. Do not
brush cement out to a thin paint-type layer that will dry in a
few seconds. The amount should be more than sufficient to
fill any gap between the pipe and fitting.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۸۱
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
۱۲٫ Apply a medium layer of solvent cement to the fitting
socket; avoid puddling cement in the socket. On bell-end
pipe do not coat beyond the socket depth or allow cement to
run down in the pipe beyond the bell.
۱۵٫ After assembly a properly made joint will normally show
a ring or bead of cement completely around the juncture of
the pipe and fitting. Any gaps at this point may indicate a
defective assembly job, due to insufficient cement or the use
of light bodied cement on larger diameters where heavy bod-
ied cement should have been used.
INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC AND CPVC PIPE AND FITTINGS
۱۶٫ Without disturbing the joint, use a rag and remove
excess cement from the pipe at the end of the fitting socket.
This includes the ring or bead noted earlier. This excess
cement will not straighten the joint and may actually cause
needless softening of the pipe and additional cure times.
۱۷٫ Handle newly assembled joints carefully until initial set
has taken place. Recommended setting time allowed before
handling or moving is related to temperature. See initial set
times (Table 70).
۱۸٫ Allow the joint to cure for adequate time before pressure
testing. Joint strength development is very rapid within the
first 48 hours. Short cure periods are satisfactory for high
ambient temperatures with low humidity, small pipe sizes,
and interference-type fittings. Longer cure periods are nec-
essary for low temperatures, large pipe sizes, loose fits, and
relatively high humidity. See Table 71 for recommended cure
times.
۱۳٫ Apply a second full, even coat of solvent cement to the
male end of the pipe. There must be sufficient cement to fill
any gap in the joint. The cement must be applied deliber-
ately but without delay. It may be necessary for two men to
work together when cementing three inch and larger pipe.
۱۴٫ While both the inside of the socket and the outside sur-
face of the male end of the pipe are soft and wet with
cement, forcefully bottom the male end of the pipe into the
socket. Give the male end of the pipe a one-quarter turn if
possible. This will help drive any air bubbles out of the joint.
The pipe must go into the bottom of the socket and stay
there. Hold the joint together until both soft surfaces are
firmly gripped. (Usually less than 30 seconds on small diam-
eter piping, larger sizes will require more time.) Care must
be used since the fitting sockets are tapered and the pipe
will try to push out of the fitting just after assembly.
When solvent cementing large diameter (8 inch and above)
pipe and fittings proper equipment should be used. We rec-
ommend using straps and come-alongs as shown. See the
tool section of the Harrington catalog.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۸۲
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
RELATIVE HUMIDITY
۶۰% OR LESS*
TEMPERATURE RANGE
DURING ASSEMBLY
AND CURE TIME
۶۰° TO 100° F
۴۰° TO 59° F
۰° TO 39° F
Up to
۱۰۰ psi
۴۸-۷۲ Hr.
۵ Days
۱۰-۱۴ Days
CURE TIME
FOR PIPE
SIZES
۱/۲”TO 1 1/4
CURE TIME
FOR PIPE
SIZES
۱ ۱/۲”TO 3”
Up To
۱۸۰ psi
۶ Hr.
۱۲ Hr.
۴۸ Hr.
Above 180
to 315 psi
۲۴ Hr.
۴۸ Hr.
۸ Days
CURE TIME
FOR PIPE
SIZES
۱۰”TO 14”
Up to
۱۸۰ psi
۲۴ Hr.
۷۲ hrs
۸ Days
CURE TIME
FOR PIPE
SIZES
۱۶”TO 24”
CURE TIME
FOR PIPE
SIZES
۴”TO 8”
INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC AND CPVC PIPE AND FITTINGS
SET TIME
FOR PIPE
SIZES
۱۶”TO 24”
۴ HR.
۱۶ HR.
۴۸ HR.
SET TIME
FOR PIPE
SIZES
۱۰”TO 14”
۲ HR.
۸ HR.
۲۴ HR.
SET TIME
FOR PIPE
SIZES
۴”TO 8”
۱ HR.
۴ HR.
۱۲ HR.
SET TIME
FOR PIPE
SIZES
۱/۲”TO 1 1/4”
۱۵ MIN.
۱HR.
۳ HR.
SET TIME
FOR PIPE
SIZES
۱ ۱/۲”TO 3”
۳۰ MIN.
۲ HR.
۶ HR.
TEMPERATURE RANGE
DURING INITIAL
SET TIME
۶۰° TO 100° F
۴۰° TO 59° F
۰° TO 39° F
* In damp or humid weather allow 50% more cure time.
Table 70
INITIAL SET TIMES
The following cure schedules are suggested as guides. They
are based on laboratory test data and should not be taken to
be the recommendation of all cement manufacturers.
Individual manufacturers’ recommendations for their particu-
lar cement should be followed. These cure schedules are
based on laboratory test data obtained on net fit joints. (Net
fit—in a dry fit the pipe bottoms snugly in the fitting socket
without meeting interference.) If a gap joint is encountered in
the system, double the following cure times.
Table 71
JOINT CURE SCHEDULE
FOR PVC/CPVC PIPE AND FITTINGS
Good solvent cemented joints exhibit a complete dull sur-
face on both surfaces when cut in half and pried apart.
Leaky joints will show a continuous or an almost continuous
series of shiny spots or channels from the bottom to the
outer lip of the fitting. No bond occured at these shiny
spots. The condition can increase to the point where the
entire cemented area is shiny, and the fitting can blow off at
this point.
۱٫ Cementing surface not properly primed and dissolved
prior to applying solvent cement.
۲٫ Use of too small an applicator for primer or cement in
comparison to pipe and fitting diameter.
۳٫ Use of a cement which has partially or completely dried
prior to bottoming the pipe into the fitting.
۴٫ Use of jelled cement which will not bite into the pipe and
fitting surface due to loss of the prime solvent.
۵٫ Insufficient cement or cement applied only to one
surface.
۶٫ Excess gap which cannot be satisfactorily filled.
۷٫ Excess time taken to make the joint after start of the
cement application. In many of these cases, as well as
condition No. 2, examination will show that it was impossi-
ble to bottom the fitting, since the lubrication effect of the
cement had dissipated.
۸٫ Cementing with pipe surfaces above 110°F has
evaporated too much of the prime solvent.
۹٫ Cementing with cement which has water added by one
means or another, or excess humidity conditions coupled
with low temperatures.
۱۰٫ Joints that have been disturbed and the bond broken prior
to the firm set, or readjusted for alignment after bottoming.
TROUBLESHOOTING AND TESTING
SOLVENT CEMENT JOINTS
DO NOT TEST WITH AIR OR COMPRESSED GAS.
DO NOT TAKE SHORTCUTS. Experience has
shown that shortcuts from the instructions given
above are the cause of most field failures. Don’t take
a chance.
Solvent cemented joints correctly assembled with
good cement under reasonable field conditions
should never blow apart when tested, after the sug-
gested cure period under recommended test pres-
sures.
Shiny areas can be attributed to one or a combination of
the following causes:
Above 180
to 315 psi
۱۲ Hr.
۲۴ Hr.
۹۶ Hr.
Up To
۱۸۰ psi
۲ Hr.
۴ Hr.
۱۶ Hr.
Up To
۱۸۰ psi
۱ Hr.
۲ Hr.
۸ Hr.
Above 180
to 370 psi
۶ Hr.
۱۲ Hr.
۴۸ Hr.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۸۳
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC AND CPVC PIPE AND FITTINGS
JOINING PLASTIC PIPE IN HOT WEATHER
There are many occasions when solvent cementing plastic
pipe in 95°F temperatures and over cannot be avoided. If spe-
cial precautions are taken, problems can be avoided. Solvent
cements for plastic pipe contain high-strength solvents which
evaporate faster at elevated temperatures. This is especially
true when there is a hot wind blowing. If the pipe is stored in
direct sunlight, surface temperatures may be 20°F to 30°F
above the air temperature. Solvents attack these hot surfaces
faster and deeper, especially inside the joint. Thus it is very
important to avoid puddling inside the socket and to wipe off
excess cement outside the joint.
By following our standard instructions and using a little extra
care as outlined below, successful solvent cemented joints
can be made even in the most extreme hot weather condi-
tions.
JOINING PLASTIC PIPE IN COLD WEATHER
Working in freezing temperatures is never easy, but some-
times the job is necessary. If that unavoidable job includes
solvent cementing of plastic pipe, it can be done.
GOOD JOINTS CAN BE MADE AT SUB-ZERO
TEMPERATURES
By following our standard instructions and using a little
extra care and patience, successful solvent cemented
joints can be made at temperatures even as low as -15°F.
In cold weather solvents penetrate and soften the surfaces
more slowly than in warm weather.Also, the plastic is more
resistant to solvent attack. Therefore, it becomes more
important to presoften surfaces with primer.
Because solvents evaporate slower in cold weather, a
longer cure time will be required. The cure schedule print-
ed in Table 71 already allows a wide margin for safety. For
colder weather, simply allow more cure time.
۱٫ Store solvent cements and primers in a cool or shaded
area prior to use.
۲٫ If possible, store fittings and pipe, or at least the ends to
be solvent cemented, in a shady area before cementing.
۳٫ Cool surfaces to be joined by wiping with a damp rag.
Be sure that surface is dry prior to applying solvent
cement.
۴٫ Try to do the solvent cementing in the cooler morning
hours.
۵٫ Make sure that both surfaces to be joined are still wet
with cement when putting them together. With large size
pipe, more people on the crew may be necessary.
۶٫ Use one of our heavier bodied, high viscosity cements
since they will provide a little more working time.
۷٫ Be prepared for a greater expansion-contraction factor
in hot weather.
TIPS TO FOLLOW WHEN SOLVENT CEMENTING IN HIGH TEMPERATURES:
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۸۴
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
PHYSICAL DATA
FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
۷۰۵ CLEAR OR GRAY CEMENT FOR PVC
۱۵۱°F SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H 2 0=1) 0.920 ±۰٫۰۲
BOILING POINT (°F) Based on 1st boiling
Comp.THF.
VAPOR PRESSURE (mm Hg.)
THF @ 25°C
۱۹۰ ۸۵ to 90%
VAPOR DENSITY (AIR = 1) APPROX. 2.49
PERCENT, VOLATILE
BY VOLUME (%) APPROX
EVAPORATION RATE
(BUAC = 1) APPROX.
۵٫۵ to 8
APPEARANCE AND ODOR – Clear,Thin syrupy liquid, Etheral odor
FLASH POINT (Method used) FLAMMABLE LIMITS Left Used
(T.O.C.)10°F 1.8 1.8
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA
Dry chemical,Carbondioxide – Foam – Ansul “Purple K” National Aero-O-Foam
SOLUBILITY IN WATER Solvent portion PVC resin & filler – Precipates
PHYSICAL DATA
FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
۷۱۹ GRAY CEMENT FOR PVC
۱۵۱°F SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H 2 0=1) 0.009 ±۰٫۰۰۴
BOILING POINT (°F) Based on 1st boiling
Comp.THF.
VAPOR PRESSURE (mm Hg.)
THF @
۱۹۰ ۸۰%
VAPOR DENSITY (AIR = 1) APPROX. 2.49
PERCENT, VOLATILE
BY VOLUME (%)
EVAPORATION RATE
(BUAC = 1) APPORX. Initial
۵ – ۸
APPEARANCE AND ODOR – Gray color, paste like, Etheral Odor
FLASH POINT (Method used) FLAMMABLE LIMITS Left Used
(T.C.C.)8°F 2 11.8
SOLUBILITY IN WATER Solvent portion
PVC resin & filler – Precipates
PHYSICAL DATA
FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
۷۱۴ GRAY CEMENT FOR CPVC
۱۵۱° SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H 2 0=1)
BOILING POINT (°F)
The lowest boiling point
VAPOR PRESSURE (mm Hg.)
THF @ 25
۱۹۰ ۸۵-۹۰%
VAPOR DENSITY (AIR = 1) APPROX. 2.49
PERCENT, VOLATILE
BY VOLUME (%)
EVAPORATION RATE
(BUAC = 1) Initially
۸٫۰
APPEARANCE AND ODOR -Gray color, Medium syrupy liquid – Etheral Odor
FLASH POINT (Method used) FLAMMABLE LIMITS Left Used
(T.O.C.) 6°F 1.8 % 11.8%
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA
Dry chemical, Carbondioxide – Foam – Ansul “Purple K” National Aero-O-Foam
SOLUBILITY IN WATER Resin precipates
SPECIAL FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES
Close or confined quarters require self contained breathing apparatus. Positive pressure hose
mask or airline masks
UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS
Fire hazard because of low flash point, high volatility and heavy vapor.
+

PHYSICAL DATA
FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
۷۱۱ GRAY CEMENT FOR PVC
۱۵۱°F SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H 2 0=1) 0.958 0.008
BOILING POINT (°F) Based on 1st boiling
Comp.THF.
VAPOR PRESSURE (mm Hg.)
THF @ 25°C
۱۹۰ ۹۰%
VAPOR DENSITY (AIR = 1) APPROX. 2.49
PERCENT, VOLATILE
BY VOLUME (%)APPROX.
EVAPORATION RATE
(BUAC = 1) APPROX.
۵٫۰ to 8
APPEARANCE AND ODOR – Gary color, medium syrupy liquid – Etheral Odor
FLASH POINT (Method used) FLAMMABLE LIMITS Left Used
(T.O.C.) 8°F % in Air 2.0 11.8
SOLUBILITY IN WATER Solvent portion PVC resin & filler – Precipates
UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS
Fire hazard because of low flash point, high volatility and heavy vapor.
SPECIAL FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES
Close or confined quarters require self contained breathing apparatus. Positive pressure hose
mask or airline masks.
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA
Dry chemical, Carbondioxide – Foam – Ansul “Purple K” National Aero-O-Foam
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA
Carbondioxide, Dry chemicals
SPECIAL FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES
Close or confined quarters require self-contained breathing apparatus. Positive pressure hose
mask or airline masks.
UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS
Fire hazard because of low flash point, high volatility and heavy vapor.
SPECIAL FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES
Close or confined quarters require self contained breathing apparatus. Positive pressure hose
mask or airline masks.
UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS
Fire hazard because of low flash point, high volatility and heavy vapor.
PHYSICAL DATA
FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARD DATA
P-70 PRIMER FOR PVC AND CPVC
۱۵۱°F
BOILING POINT (°F) Based on 1st boiling
Comp.THF.
VAPOR PRESSURE (mm Hg.)
THF @ 25
۱۹۰ ۱۰۰%
VAPOR DENSITY (AIR = 1) APPROX. 2.49
PERCENT, VOLATILE
BY VOLUME (%)
EVAPORATION RATE
(BUAC = 1) APPROX.
۵٫۵ – ۸
SOLUBILITY IN WATER 100%
APPEARANCE AND ODOR – Purple Color, – Etheral Odor
FLASH POINT (Method used) FLAMMABLE LIMITS Left Used
(T.C.C.) 6°F 1.8 11.8
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA
Dry chemical,Carbondioxide – Foam – Ansul “Purple K” National Aero-O-Foam
SPECIAL FIREFIGHTING PROCEDURES
Close or confined quarters require self contained breathing apparatus. Positive pressure hose
mask or airline masks.
UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS
Fire hazard because of low flash point, high volatility and heavy vapor.
For all practical purposes, good solvent cemented joints can be
made in very cold conditions with our existing products, providing
proper care and a little common sense are used.
TIPS TO FOLLOW IN SOLVENT CEMENTING DURING COLD
WEATHER:
۱٫ Prefabricate as much of the system as is possible in a heated
working area.
۲٫ Store cements and primers in a warmer area when not in use and
make sure they remain fluid.
۳٫ Take special care to remove moisture, including ice and snow.
۴٫ Use extra primer to soften the joining surfaces before applying
cement.
۵٫ Allow a longer initial set and cure period before the joint is moved
or the system is tested.
۶٫ Read and follow all of our directions carefully before installation.
Regular cements are formulated to have well-balanced dry-
ing characteristics and to have good stability in sub-freezing
temperatures. Some manufacturers offer special cements
for cold weather because their regular cements do not have
that same stability.
INSTALLATION OF THERMOPLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS
SOLVENT CEMENTING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PVC AND CPVC PIPE AND FITTINGS
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H 2 0=1) 0.870 ±۰٫۰۱۰
Low VOC 724 cement for hypochlorite service
weld-on 724 CPVC low VOC cement is a gray, medium bodied,
fast-setting solvent cement used for joining CPVC industrial pip-
ing through 12” diameter and is specially formulated for services
that include caustics and hypochlorites.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۸۵
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
THREADING INSTRUCTIONS PVC – CPVC – PP – PVDF
SCOPE
The procedure presented herein covers threading
of all IPS Schedule 80 or heavier thermoplastic
pipe.The threads are National Pipe Threads (NPT)
which are cut to the dimensions outlined in ANSI
B2.1 and presented below:
DO NOT THREAD SCHEDULE 40 PIPE
Table 72 Threading Dimensions
PIPE THREADS
TOTAL
LENGTH:
END OF PIPE
TO VANISH
POINT
B
(IN.)
PITCH
DIAMETER
AT END OF
INTERNAL
THREAD
E
(IN.)
NORMAL
ENGAGEMENT
BY HAND
C
(IN.)
LENGTH
OF
EFFECTIVE
THREAD
A
(IN.)
OUTSIDE
DIAMETER
D
PER INCH
NOMINAL
PIPE SIZE
(IN.)
DEPTH
OF
THREAD
MAX.
(IN.)
۱/۴
۱/۲
۳/۴
۱
۱-۱/۴
۱-۱/۲
۲
۲-۱/۲
۳
۴
.۵۴۰
.۸۴۰
۱٫۰۵۰
۱٫۳۱۵
۱٫۶۶۰
۱٫۹۰۰
۲٫۳۷۵
۲٫۸۷۵
۳٫۵۰۰
۴٫۵۰۰
۱۸
۱۴
۱۴
۱۱-۱/۲
۱۱-۱/۲
۱۱-۱/۲
۱۱-۱/۲
۸
۸
۸
.۲۰۰
.۳۲۰
.۳۳۹
.۴۰۰
.۴۲۰
.۴۲۰
.۴۳۶
.۶۸۲
.۷۶۶
.۸۴۴
.۴۰۱۸
.۵۳۳۷
.۵۴۵۷
.۶۸۲۸
.۷۰۶۸
.۷۲۳۵
.۷۵۶۵
۱٫۱۳۷۵
۱٫۲۰۰۰
۱٫۳۰۰۰
.۵۹۴۶
.۷۸۱۵
.۷۹۳۵
.۹۸۴۵
۱٫۰۰۸۵
۱٫۰۵۲۲
۱٫۰۵۸۲
۱٫۵۷۱۲
۱٫۶۳۳۷
۱٫۷۳۳۷
.۴۸۹۸۹
.۷۷۸۴۳
.۹۸۸۸۷
۱٫۲۳۸۶۳
۱٫۵۸۳۳۸
۱٫۸۲۲۳۴
۲٫۲۹۶۲۷
۲٫۷۶۲۱۶
۳٫۳۸۸۵۰
۴٫۳۸۷۱۳
.۰۴۴۴۴
.۰۵۷۱۴
.۰۵۷۱۴
.۰۶۹۵۷
.۰۶۹۵۷
.۰۶۹۵۷
.۰۶۹۵۷
.۱۰۰۰۰
.۱۰۰۰۰
.۱۰۰۰۰
NUMBER
OF
THREADS
(IN.)
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۸۶
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
THREADING INSTRUCTIONS PVC – CPVC – PP – PVDF
THREADING EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS
• Pipe dies
• Pipe vise
• Threading ratchet or power machine
• Tapered plug
• Cutting lubricant (soap and water, soluble
machine oil and water)
• Strap wrench
• Teflon tape
• Cutting tools
• Deburring tool
PIPE PREPARATION
Cut pipe square and smooth and remove burrs or raised
edges with a knife or file. To ensure square end cuts, a miter
box, hold down or jig must be used. The pipe can be easily
cut with a power or hand saw, circular or band saw. Smooth
cuts are obtained by using fine-toothed cutting blades (16-
۱۸ teeth per inch). A circumferential speed of about 6000
ft./min. is suitable for circular saws, band saw speed should
be approximately 3000 ft./min. Pipe or tubing cutters can
also be used to produce square, smooth cuts, however, the
cutting wheel should be specifically designed for plastic
pipe. Such a cutter is available from your local service cen-
ter.
If a hold down vise is used when the pipe is cut, the jaws
should be protected from scratching or gouging the pipe by
inserting a rubber sheet between the vise jaws and the pipe.
THREADING DIES
Thread-cutting dies should be clean, sharp and in good con-
dition and should not be used to cut materials other than
plastics. Dies with a 5° negative front rake are recommend-
ed when using power threading equipment and dies with a
۵° to 10° negative front rake are recommended when cutting
threads by hand.
When cutting threads with power threading equipment, self-
opening die heads and a slight chamfer to lead the dies will
speed production.
THREADING AND JOINING
۱٫ Hold pipe firmly in a pipe vise. Protect the pipe at the point
of grip by inserting a rubber sheet or other material
between the pipe and vise.
۲٫ A tapered plug must be inserted in the end of the pipe to
be threaded. This plug provides additional support and
prevents distortion of the pipe in the threaded area.
Distortion of the pipe during the threading operation will
result in eccentric threads, non-uniform circumferential
thread depth, or gouging and tearing of the pipe wall. See
Table 72 for approximate plug O.D. dimensions.
۳٫ Use a die stock with a proper guide that is free of burrs or
sharp edges, so the die will start and go on square to the
pipe axis.
۴٫ Push straight down on the handle avoiding side pressure
that might distort the sides of the threads. If power thread-
ing equipment is used, the dies should not be driven at high
speeds or with heavy pressure. Apply an external lubricant
liberally when cutting the threads. Advance the die to the
point where the thread dimensions are equal to those list-
ed in Table 72. Do not overthread.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۸۷
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
THREADING INSTRUCTIONS PVC – CPVC – PP – PVDF
PRESSURE TESTING
Threaded piping systems can be pressure tested up to 50%
of the pipe’s hydrostatic pressure rating as soon as the last
connection is made.
Caution: Air or compressed gas is not recommended and
should not be used as a media for pressure testing of plastic
piping systems.
Caution: Pressure ratings for threaded systems are reduced
drastically. Check your application with your local service
center prior to installation.
TABLE 73
REINFORCING PLUG DIMENSIONS*
*These dimensions are based on the median wall thickness
and average outside diameter for the respective pipe sizes.
Variations in wall thickness and O.D. dimensions may require
alteration of the plug dimensions.
PLUG O.D.*
NOMINAL PIPE SIZE
(IN.)
۱/۲
۳/۴
۱
۱-۱/۴
۱-۱/۲
۲
۲-۱/۲
۳
۴
.۵۲۶
.۷۲۲
.۹۳۵
۱٫۲۵۴
۱٫۴۷۵
۱٫۹۱۳
۲٫۲۸۹
۲٫۸۶۴
۳٫۷۸۶
۵٫ Periodically check the threads with a ring gauge to ensure
that proper procedures are being followed.Thread dimen-
sions are listed in Table 72 and the gauging tolerance is
+۱-۱/۲ turns.
۶٫ Brush threads clean of chips and ribbons. Then starting
with the second full thread and continuing over the thread
length, wrap TFE (Teflon) thread tape in the direction of
the threads. Overlap each wrap by one-half the width of
the tape.
۷٫ Screw the fitting onto the pipe and tighten by hand. Using
a strap wrench only, further tighten the connection an addi-
tional one to two threads past hand tightness. Avoid exces-
sive torque as this may cause thread damage or fitting
damage.
USE STRAP WRENCH ONLY!
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۸۸
INSTALLATION OF
THERMOPLASTIC
FLANGED JOINTS
(°F)
۱۰۰
۱۱۰
۱۲۰
۱۳۰
۱۴۰
۱۵۰
۱۶۰
۱۷۰
۱۸۰
۱۹۰
۲۰۰
۲۵۰
۲۸۰
۱۵۰
۱۳۵
۱۱۰
۷۵
۵۰
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
۱۵۰
۱۴۰
۱۳۰
۱۲۰
۱۱۰
۱۰۰
۹۰
۸۰
۷۰
۶۰
۵۰
NR
NR
۱۵۰
۱۴۰
۱۳۰
۱۱۸
۱۰۵
۹۳
۸۰
۷۰
۵۰
NR
NR
NR
NR
۱۵۰
۱۵۰
۱۵۰
۱۵۰
۱۵۰
۱۴۰
۱۳۳
۱۲۵
۱۱۵
۱۰۶
۹۷
۵۰
۲۵
NR- Not Recommended
* PVC and CPVC flanges sizes 2-1/2, 3 and 4-inch threaded must be back
welded for the above pressure capability to be applicable.
** Threaded PP flanges size 1/2 thru 4” as well as the 6” back weld socket
flange are not recommended for pressure applications (drainage only).
SEALING
The faces of flanges are tapered back away from the orifice
area at a 1/2 to 1 degree pitch so that when the bolts are
tightened the faces will be pulled together generating a force
in the waterway area to improve sealing.
PVC* CPVC* PP** PVDF
OPERATING
TEMPERATURE
INSTALLATION TIPS
Once a flange is joined to pipe, the method for joining two
flanges together is as follows:
۱٫ Make sure that all the bolt holes of the matching flanges
match up. It is not necessary to twist the flange and pipe
to achieve this.
۲٫ Insert all bolts.
۳٫ Make sure that the faces of the mating flanges are not
separated by excessive distance prior to bolting down the
flanges.
۴٫ The bolts on the plastic flanges should be tightened by
pulling down the nuts diametrically opposite each other
using a torque wrench. Complete tightening should be
accomplished in stages and the final torque values in the
following table should be followed for the various sizes of
flanges. Uniform stress across the flange will eliminate
leaky gaskets.
SCOPE
Flanged joints are recommended extensively for plastic pip-
ing systems that require periodic dismantling. Flanges and
flanged fittings are available in almost all materials and sizes
to meet your requirements. Please consult your local ser-
vice center for the availability of any flanged fitting not shown
in this catalog. Flanges are normally assembled to pipe or
fittings by solvent welding, threading, or thermal fusion.
Gasket seals between the flange faces should be an elas-
tomeric, full, flat-faced gasket with a hardness of 50 to 70
durometer. Harrington Industrial Plastics can provide neo-
prene gaskets in the 1/2” through 24” range having a 1/8”
thickness. For chemical environments too aggressive for
neoprene, other more resistant elastomers should be used.
DIMENSIONS
Bolt circle and number of bolt holes for the flanges are the
same as 150 lb. metal flanges per ANSI B16.1. Threads are
tapered iron pipe size threads per ANSI B2.1. The socket
dimensions conform to ASTMD 2467 which describes one-
half through 8” sizes.
PRESSURE RATING
Maximum pressure for any flanged system is 150 psi. At ele-
vated temperatures the pressure capability of a flanged sys-
tem must be derated as follows:
Table 74
MAXIMUM OPERATING PRESSURE (PSI)
FLANGE SIZE
(IN.)
RECOMMENDED
TORQUE (FT. LBS.)*
۱/۲-۱-۱/۲
۲-۴
۶-۸
۱۰
۱۲
۱۴-۲۴
۱۰-۱۵
۲۰-۳۰
۳۳-۵۰
۵۳-۷۵
۸۰-۱۱۰
۱۰۰
*For a well lubricated bolt.
The following tightening
pattern is suggested for
the flange bolts.
۱
۲
۳ ۴
۵
۶
۷
۸
۵٫ If the flange is mated to a rigid and stationary flanged
object, or a metal flange, particularly in a buried situation
where settling could occur with the plastic pipe, the plastic
flange must be supported to eliminate potential stressing.
Note: Flange gasket and low torque gasket sets are
available from Harrington Industrial Plastics.
Table 75
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۸۹
FIBERGLASS REINFORCED
PLASTICS (FRP)
FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS (FRP)
FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS (FRP)
FRP is a special segment of the corrosion-resistant plastics
industry. By combining flexible strands of glass with various
thermoset resins, a wide range of performance characteristics
can be achieved. Unlike thermoplastic resins, thermoset
resins do not return to a liquid state with heat.
The glass can be prepared in a variety of forms which deter-
mines the final properties of the glass resin combination. As
an example, the glass can be chopped strands in a mat or felt
type fabric, yarns, woven fabric, continuous strands, unidirec-
tional or bidirectional fabrics and so on. The choices are
almost infinite.
The different types of glass all have different rates of resin
absorption. For the most part, every mechanical attribute is
enhanced by increasing the volume of glass contained in the
plastic thermoset resin. Thus, glass versus resin ratio
becomes a key criteria in defining a product for a particular
application.
Glass fiber and resin are described as a composite or lami-
nate. When combining glass and resin, it is important to “wet
the glass” and this is done by eliminating the trapped air which
increases the glass to resin interface.The glass used for FRP
is treated with silane or other similar chemistry to enhance the
resin’s affinity to the glass.
Selecting a specific resin will dictate the performance charac-
teristics of the final FRP product. Chemical resistance, tem-
perature range and mechanical properties are determined by
the choice of resin and the glass.
Epoxy resins give exceptional mechanical strength and are
very chemically resistant. Epoxies are used for caustics,
hydrocarbons, and most organic chemicals. Several catalysts
can be used in curing the epoxy resin by a crosslinking of the
long polymer chain. The choice of catalyst will determine the
properties of the finished FRP product. For example, an anhy-
dride catalyst will give an epoxy product with limited chemical
resistance and limited temperature capability. An aromatic
amines catalyst, on the other hand, will produce a final prod-
uct with broad chemical resistance and a temperature range
of up to 300° F in certain services.
Primary disadvantages of epoxies are they require long cur-
ing times and are best cured using heat to promote complete
reaction for all the epoxy sites. Epoxies are, therefore,
stronger when the catalyzation is enhanced by heat.
Polyester resins are available in many forms.The two that are
relevant to FRP are orthophthalic and isophthalic resins. The
former is a non-corrosion resistant resin used in boats, auto
bodies, and structural forms.The latter is the chemically resis-
tant resin that is appropriate to our use in handling corrosive
fluids. Isophalic polyester is the most economical of all the
resin choices for FRP.
Vinylester is a coined word describing a polyester that has
been modified by the addition of epoxide reactive sites. The
vinylester resin has broad chemical resistance including most
acids and weak bases. It is generally the choice for high puri-
ty deionized water storage in an FRP vessel.
FRP piping is available from a few major manufacturers as a
standard catalog, off-the-shelf product in diameters up to 16
inches. Face to face dimensions for fittings are based on steel
and the requirements of American National Standards
Institute ANSI B -16.3.Not all fittings meet ANSI requirements
unless specified by agreement. FRP flanges are always thick-
er than steel, so longer bolts are needed.
There are many fabricators who specialize in made-to-order
or custom vessels, as well as special made-to-order piping.
For FRP piping larger than 16 inch in diameter, it is also made
to order. Large diameter FRP pipe can be custom made in
sizes even larger than 12 feet.
FRP pipe products are manufactured by several techniques.
Filament winding is done using continuous lengths of fiber-
glass yarn or tape which are wound onto a polished steel
mandrel. The glass is saturated with a catalyzed resin as it is
being wound onto the mandrel.This process is continued until
the desired wall thickness is achieved. The resin polymerizes
usually by an exothermic reaction. Depending on the angle at
which the glass is applied and the tension, the mechanical
properties of the finished product can be affected. Piping and
vessels are produced in this manner.
Centrifugal casting involves applying glass and catalyzed
resin to the inside of a rotating polished cylindrical pipe.
Curing of the glass resin combination forms a finished pipe.
The forces of the centrifugal rotating cylinder forces the resin
to wet the glass and gives an inherent resin rich and polished
outside diameter to the final product. The resin that is in
excess of that required to wet the glass forms a pure resin
liner. Pipe, both small and larger diameter, as well as tanks,
are manufactured by this process.
Applications for FRP have grown since the introduction almost
forty years ago of thermoset resins. The following is a list of
some of the general advantages of FRP:
Corrosion resistant
Lightweight
High strength-to-weight ratio
Low resistance to flow
Ease of installation
Low cost of installation
Very low electrical conductivity
Excellent thermal insulation
Long service life
Dimensional stability
Industrial uses for FRP tanks and piping have developed in oil
and gas, chemical processing, mining, nuclear, and almost
every other industry you can think of.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۹۰
FIBERGLASS REINFORCED
PLASTICS (FRP)
FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTICS (FRP)
FRP piping is very amenable to the addition of specific addi-
tives to achieve certain properties. Antimony trioxide or
brominated compounds, for example, can be added to pro-
vide excellent fire resistant characteristics. Specifically,
designed FRP piping systems are produced for internal pres-
sures up to 3000 PSI.Other FRP piping is used for down hole
in the oil field, usually for salt water reinjection. FRP products
are one of the most easily modified to meet specific needs,
thus the broad range of industrial applications.
As with any piping material, good system design, proper fab-
rication and correct installation techniques are necessary for
long and reliable service life.
Selecting the proper joining method is important for control-
ling installation costs and being compatible with the nature of
the installation.
Butt and wrap is used to join FRP pipe by simply butting two
sections of pipe together and overwrapping the joint with mul-
tiple layers of fiberglass saturated with the appropriate resin.
Threaded connections are often used for rapid and easy join-
ing.There can be an O-ring gasket used to provide the seal-
ing mechanism.
Bell and spigot joints are used usually with a bonding adhe-
sive or with a gasket.
Flanges are most often used to join FRP pipe to metal or
other dissimilar piping materials.
Contact molding is a process of applying fiberglass and resin
to the surface of a mold that may be a variety of shapes.This
process can be done by hand, spraying, or with an automat-
ed system. FRP fittings, vessels, and piping are produced by
this method.
Compression molding is a process normally used to manu-
facture FRP fittings. A mixture of glass and resin is placed
inside a mold and with heat and other molding techniques a
finished part is produced.
Current standards outline the composition, performance
requirements, construction method, design criteria testing
and quality of workmanship. The modern standards have
their origin in the U.S.Dept.of Commerce Voluntary Standard
PS1549. Custom Contact Molded Reinforced Polyester
Chemical Resistant Equipment. The ASTMC-582-95 takes
the place of PS1569.
The following is a partial listing of ASTM standards for FRP
Industrial products.
FIBERGLASS PIPE AND FITTINGS
Specification for:
D 2997 – 95 Centrifugally Cast “Fiberglass” Pipe
D 5421 – 93 Contact Molded “Fiberglass” Flanges
D 5677 – 95 “Fiberglass” Pipe and Pipe Fittings,
Adhesive Bonded Joint Type, for Aviation
Jet Turbine Fuel Lines
D 5686 – 95 “Fiberglass” Pipe and Pipe Fittings,
Adhesive Bonded Joint Type Epoxy Resin,
for Condensate Return Lines
D 3517 – 91 “Fiberglass” Pressure Pipe
D 5685 – 95 “Fiberglass” Pressure Pipe Fittings
D 2996 – 95 Filament-Wound”Fiberglass” Pipe
D 4024 – 94 Reinforced Thermosetting Resin (RTR)
Flanges
FIBERGLASS TANKS AND EQUIPMENT
Specifications for:
D 4097 – 95a Contact-Molded Glass-Fiber-Reinforced
Thermoset Resin Chemical-Resistant
Tanks
C 482 – 95 Contact-Molded Reinforced Thermosetting
Plastic (RTP) Laminates for Corrosion
Resistant Equipment
D 3982 – 92 Custom Contact-Pressure-Molded Glass-
Fiber-Reinforced Thermosetting Resin
Hoods
D 3299 – 95a Filament-Wound Glass-Fiber-Reinforced
Thermoset Resin Chemical-Resistant
Tanks
There are many special tools used for making field joints.The
best policy is to follow the FRP pipe manufacturer’s recom-
mendations precisely. Most manufacturers offer the services
of a factory person to train or supervise fabrication and instal-
lation.
To take maximum advantage of the many advantages of FRP
in your corrosive or high purity application, contact your near-
est Harrington or Corro-Flo Harrington location, or contact
our Technical Services Group in Chino, California, using the
number listed on the inside back cover.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۹۱
HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS
HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS
PRESSURE The basic definition of pressure is force per
unit area. As commonly used in hydraulics and in this cat-
alog, it is expressed in pounds per square inch (PSI).
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE is the force exerted on a unit
area by the weight of the atmosphere. At sea level, the
atmospheric standard pressure is 14.7 pounds per square
inch.
GAUGE PRESSURE Using atmospheric pressure as a
zero reference, gauge pressure is a measure of the force
per unit area exerted by a fluid. Units are PSIG.
ABSOLUTE PRESSURE is the total force per unit area
exerted by a fluid. It equals atmospheric pressure plus
gauge pressure. Units are expressed in PSIA.
OUTLET PRESSURE or discharge pressure is the average
pressure at the outlet of a pump during operation, usually
expressed as gauge pressure (psig).
INLET PRESSURE is the average pressure measured near
the inlet port of a pump during operation. It is expressed
either in units of absolute pressure (psig) preferably, or
gauge pressure (psig).
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE is the difference between the
outlet pressure and the inlet pressure.Differential pressure is
sometimes called Pump Total Differential pressure.
VACUUM OR SUCTION are terms in common usage to indi-
cate pressures in a pumping system below normal atmo-
spheric pressure and are often measured as the difference
between the measured pressure and atmospheric pressure
in units of inches of mercury vacuum, etc. It is more conve-
nient to discuss these in absolute terms; that is from a
reference of absolute zero pressure in units of psia.
FLUID FUNDAMENTALS Fluids include liquids, gases, and
mixtures of liquids, solids, and gases.For the purpose of this
catalog, the terms fluid and liquid are used interchange-
ably to mean pure liquids, or liquids mixed with gases or
solids which act essentially as a liquid in a pumping appli-
cation.
DENSITY OR SPECIFIC WEIGHT of a fluid is its weight per
unit volume, often expressed in units of pounds per cubic
foot, or grams per cubic centimeter.
Example: If weight is 80 Ib.; density is 80 Ib/cu. ft.
The density of a fluid changes with temperature.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY of a fluid is the ratio of its density to
the density of water. As a ratio, it has no units associated
with it.
EXAMPLE: Specific gravity is 80 lb or SG = 1.282
۶۲٫۴ lb.
TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal energy level
in a fluid. It is usually measured in units of degrees fahren-
heit (°F) or degrees centigrade (°C).The temperature of a
fluid at the pump inlet is usually of greatest concern.
See °F-°C conversion chart on page 96.
VAPOR PRESSURE of a liquid is the absolute pressure
(at a given temperature) at which a liquid will change to a
vapor. Vapor pressure is best expressed in units of psi
absolute (psia). Each liquid has its own vapor pressure-
temperature relationship.
For example: If 100°F water is exposed to the reduced
absolute pressure of .95 psia, it will boil. It will boil, even at
۱۰۰°F.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۹۲
HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS
HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS
VISCOSITY—The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its
tendency to resist a shearing force. High viscosity fluids re-
quire a greater force to shear at a given rate than low vis-
cosity fluids.
The CENTIPOISE (cps) is the most convenient unit of
absolute viscosity measurement.
Other units of viscosity measurement such as the centis-
toke (cks) or Staybolt Second Universal (SSU) are mea-
sures of Kinematic viscosity where the specific gravity of
the fluid influences the viscosity measured. Kinematic vis-
cometers usually use the force of gravity to cause the fluid
to flow down a calibrated tube while timing its flow.
The absolute viscosity, measured in units of centipoise
(۱/۱۰۰ of a poise) is used throughout this catalog as it is a
convenient and consistent unit for calculation. Other units
of viscosity can easily be converted to centipoise:
Kinematic vicsocity x Specific Gravity = Absolute Viscosity
Centistokes x Specific Gravity = Centipoise
SSU x .216 x Specific Gravity = Centipoise
See page 100 for detailed conversion charts
Viscosity unfortunately is not a constant, fixed property of a
fluid, but is a property which varies with the conditions of
the fluid and the system.
In a pumping system, the most important factors are the
normal decrease in viscosity with temperature increase.
And the viscous behavior properties of the fluid in which the
viscosity can change as shear rate or flow velocity
changes.
EFFECTIVE VISCOSITY is a term describing the real
effect of the viscosity of the ACTUAL fluid, at the SHEAR
RATES which exist in the pump and pumping system at the
design conditions.
Centrifugal pumps are generally not suitable for pumping
viscous liquids. When pumping more viscous liquids
instead of water, the capacity and head of the pump will be
reduced and the horsepower required will be increased.
pH value for a fluid is used to define whether the aqueous
solution is an acid or base (with values of pH usually
between 0 and 14):
۱٫ Acids or acidic solutions have a pH value less than 7.
۲٫ Neutral solutions have pH value of 7 at 25°C (example:
pH of pure water = 7).
۳٫ Bases or alkaline solutions have a pH value greater
than 7.
RELATION OF PRESSURE TO ELEVATION
In a static liquid (a body of liquid at rest) the pressure dif-
ference between any two points is in direct proportion only
to the vertical distance between the points.
This pressure difference is due to the weight of the liquid
and can be calculated by multiplying the vertical distance
by the density (or vertical distance x density of water x spe-
cific gravity of the fluid). In commonly used units
P static (in PSI) – Z (in feet) x 62.4 Ibs./cu. ft. x
SG 144 sq.
in./sq. ft.
PUMP HEAD-PRESSURE-SPECIFIC GRAVITY—in a
centrifugal pump the head developed (in feet) is dependent
on the velocity of the liquid as it enters the impeller eye and
as it leaves the impeller periphery and therefore, is inde-
pendent of the specific gravity of the liquid. The pressure
head developed (in psi) will be directly proportional to the
specific gravity.
Pressure-Head relation of identical pumps handling liquids
of differing specific gravities.
Pressure-head relation of pumps delivering same pressure
handling liquids of differing specific gravity.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۹۳
HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS
HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS
IMPORTANT PUMP TERMS: The term HEAD is commonly
used to express the elevational equivalent of pressure allow-
ing for specific gravity, Generally expressed in feet, head
can best be defined by the following equation:
Pounds per square inch x 2.31
= Head in feet
Specific Gravity
The following expressions of HEAD terms are generally
accepted as standards throughout the industry.
Static Head • The hydraulic pressure at a point in
a fluid when the liquid is at rest.
Friction Head • The loss in pressure or energy due
to frictional losses in flow.
Velocity Head • The energy in a fluid due to its
velocity, expressed as a head unit.
Pressure Head • A pressure measured in equivalent
head units.
Discharge Head • The output pressure of a pump in
operation.
Total Dynamic • The total pressure difference Head
between the inlet and outlet of a pump
in operation.
Suction Head • The inlet pressure of a pump when
above atmospheric.
Suction Lift • The inlet pressure of a pump when
below atmospheric.
FRICTIONAL LOSSES
The nature of frictional losses in a pumping system can be
very complex. Losses in the pump itself are determined by
actual test and are allowed for in the manufacturers’ curves
and data. Similarly, manufacturers of processing equipment,
heat exchangers, static mixers, etc., usually have data avail-
able for friction losses.
Frictional losses due to flow in pipes are
directly proportional to the:
• length of pipe • flow rate
• pipe diameter • viscosity of the fluid
Pipe friction tables have been established by the Hydraulic
Institute and many other sources which can be used to com-
pute the friction loss in a system for given flow rates, vis-
cosities, and pipe sizes. Friction loss charts for plastic pipe
appear in this catalog on pages 50-58. Tables of equivalent
lengths for fittings and valves are on page 58.
NPSH
Fluid will only flow into the pump head by atmospheric pres-
sure or atmospheric pressure plus a positive suction head.
If suction pressure at suction pipe is below the vapor pres-
sure of the fluid, the fluid may flash into a vapor. A centrifu-
gal pump cannot pump vapor only. If this happens, fluid flow
to the pump head will drop off and cavitation may result.
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD, AVAILABLE (NPSHA) is
based on the design of the system around the pump inlet.
The average pressure (in psia) is measured at the port dur-
ing operation, minus the vapor pressure of the fluid at oper-
ating temperature.It indicates the amount of useful pressure
energy available to fill the pump head.
NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD, REQUIRED (NPSHR) is
based on the pump design. This is determined by testing of
the pump for what pressure energy (in psia) is needed to fill
the pump inlet. It is a characteristic which varies primarily
with the pump speed and the viscosity of the fluid.
MM IN.
U.S. (ANSI) EUROPE (ISO)
ACTUAL
O.D.
INCHES
۱/۸
۱/۴
۳/۸
۱/۲
۳/۴
۱
۱-۱/۴
۱-۱/۲
۲
۲-۱/۲
۳
۴
۵
۶
۸
۱۰
۱۲
.۴۰۵
.۵۴۰
.۶۷۵
.۸۴۰
۱٫۰۵۰
۱٫۳۱۵
۱٫۶۶۰
۱٫۹۰۰
۲٫۳۷۵
۲٫۸۷۵
۳٫۵۰۰
۴٫۵۰۰
۵٫۵۶۳
۶٫۶۲۵
۸٫۶۲۵
۱۰٫۷۵۰
۱۲٫۷۵۰
۱۰
۱۲
۱۶
۲۰
۲۵
۳۲
۴۰
۵۰
۶۳
۷۵
۹۰
۱۱۰
۱۴۰
۱۶۰
۲۲۵
۲۸۰
۳۱۵
d
(ACTUAL O.D.)
(.۳۹۴)
(.۴۷۲)
(.۶۳۰)
(.۷۸۷)
(.۹۸۴)
(۱٫۲۶۰)
(۱٫۵۷۵)
(۱٫۹۶۹)
(۲٫۴۸۰)
(۲٫۹۵۳)
(۳٫۵۴۳)
(۴٫۳۳۱)
(۵٫۵۱۲)
(۶٫۲۹۹)
(۸٫۸۵۸)
(۱۱٫۰۲۴)
(۱۲٫۴۰۲)
NOMINAL
PIPE SIZES
(IN.)
PIPE O.D.’S CONVERSION CHART
Table 3
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۹۴
CONVERSION CHARTS
°C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F
CONVERSION DATA
TABLE 76
CONVERSION OF THERMOMETER READINGS
Degrees centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit
VOLUME
Volume of a pipe is computed by:
V= ID2x7rx Lx3
Where: V = volume (in cubic inches)
ID = inside diameter (in inches)
π = ۳٫۱۴۱۵۹
L= length of pipe (in feet)
۱ U.S. Gallon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 fl. oz. (U.S.)
۲۳۱ cu. in.
۰٫۱۳۴cu. ft.
۳٫۷۸۵ litres
.۰۰۳۷۹ cu. meters
۰٫۸۳۳ Imp. gal.
۰۲۳۸ ۴۲-gal. barrel
۱ Imperial Gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 U.S. gal.
۱ Cubic Foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.48 U.S. gal.
۰٫۰۲۸۳ cu. meter
۱ Litre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.2642 U.S. gal.
۱ Cubic Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35.314 cu. ft.
۲۶۴٫۲ U.S. gal.
۱ Acre Foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43,560 cu. ft.
۳۲۵,۸۲۹ U.S. gal.
۱ Acre Inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,630 cu. ft.
۲۷,۱۰۰ U.S. gal.
LENGTH
۱ Inch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.54 centimeters
۱ Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.28 ft.
۳۹٫۳۷ in.
۱ Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.5 ft.
۱ Mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,280 ft. (1.61 kilome-
ters)
WEIGHT
۱ U.S. Gallon @ 50°F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.33 lb. x sp. gr.
۱ Cubic Foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.35 lb. x sp. gr.
۷٫۴۸ gal. (U.S.)
۱ Cubic Ft.of Water @50°F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.41 lb.
۱ Cubic Ft. of Water @39.2°F
(۳۹٫۲°F is water temperature
at its greatest density). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.43 lb.
۱ Kilogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 lb.
۱ Imperial Gallon Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.0 Ib.
۱ Pound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 U.S. gal. -sp. gr.
۰۱۶ cu. ft. sp. gr.
CAPACITY OR FLOW
۱ Gallon Per Minute (g.p.m.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 c.f.m.
۵۰۰ lb. per hr. x sp. gr.
۵۰۰ lb. Per Hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 g.p.m.÷ sp. gr.
۱ Cubic Ft. Per Minute (c.f.m.). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 g.p.h.
۱ Cubic Ft. Per Second (c.f.s.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 g.p.m.
۱ Acre Foot Per Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 g.p.m.
۱ Acre Inch Per Hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454 g.p.m.
۱ Cubic Meter Per Minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264.2 g.p.m.
۱,۰۰۰,۰۰۰ Gal. Per Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 g.p.m.
Brake H.P. = (g.p.m. ) (Total Head in Ft.) (Specific Gravity)
(۳۹۶۰) (Pump Eff.)
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۹۵
CONVERSION CHARTS
CONVERSION DATA
TABLE 77
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۹۶
CONVERSION CHARTS
CONVERSION DATA
TABLE 78
FRACTION DECIMALS MILLIMETERS
۱/۶۴ ————.۰۱۵۶۲۵ ————۰٫۳۹۷
۱/۳۲ ————.۰۳۱۲۵ —————۰٫۷۹۴
۳/۶۴ ————.۰۴۶۸۷۵ ————۱٫۱۹۱
۱/۱۶ ————.۰۶۲۵ —————۱٫۵۸۸
۵/۶۴ ————.۰۷۸۱۲۵ ————۱٫۹۸۴
۳/۳۲ ————.۰۹۳۷۵ —————۲٫۳۸۱
۷/۶۴ ————.۱۰۹۳۷۵ ————۲٫۷۷۸
۱/۸ —————.۱۲۵۰ —————۳٫۱۷۵
۹/۶۴ ————.۱۴۰۶۲۵ ————۳٫۵۷۲
۵/۳۲ ————.۱۵۶۲۵ —————۳٫۹۶۹
۱۱/۶۴ ————.۱۷۱۸۷۵ ————۴٫۳۶۶
۳/۱۶ ————.۱۸۷۵ —————۴٫۷۶۲
۱۳/۶۴ ————.۲۰۳۱۲۵ ————۵٫۱۵۹
۷/۳۲ ————.۲۱۸۷۵ —————۵٫۵۵۶
۱۵/۶۴ ————.۲۳۴۳۷۵ ————۵٫۹۵۳
۱/۴ —————.۲۵———————۶٫۳۵۰
۱۷/۶۴ ————.۲۶۵۶۲۵ ————۶٫۷۴۷
۹/۳۲ ————.۲۸۱۲۵ —————۷٫۱۴۴
۱۹/۶۴ ————.۲۹۶۸۷۵ ————۷٫۵۴۱
۵/۱۶ ————.۳۱۲۵ —————۷٫۹۳۸
۲۱/۶۴ ————.۳۲۸۱۲۵ ————۸٫۳۳۴
۱۱/۳۲ ————.۳۴۳۷۵ —————۸٫۷۳۱
۲۳/۶۴ ————.۳۵۹۳۷۵ ————۹٫۱۲۸
۳/۸ —————.۳۷۵۰ —————۹٫۵۲۵
۲۵/۶۴ ————.۳۹۰۶۲۵ ————۹٫۹۲۲
۱۳/۳۲ ————.۴۰۶۲۵ ————۱۰٫۳۱۹
۲۷/۶۴ ————.۴۲۱۸۷۵ ————۱۰٫۷۱۶
۷/۱۶ ————.۴۳۷۵ —————۱۱٫۱۱۲
۲۹/۶۴ ————.۴۵۳۱۲۵ ————۱۱٫۵۰۹
۱۵/۳۲ ————.۴۶۸۷۵ ————۱۱٫۹۰۶
۳۱/۶۴ ————.۴۸۴۳۷۵ ————۱۲٫۳۰۳
۱/۲ —————.۵———————۱۲٫۷۰۰
FRACTION DECIMALS MILLIMETERS
۳۳/۶۴ –––––––.۵۱۵۶۲۵ –––––––۱۳٫۰۹۷
۱۷/۳۲ –––––––.۵۳۱۲۵ ––––––––۱۳٫۴۹۴
۳۵/۶۴ –––––––.۵۴۶۸۷۵ –––––––۱۳٫۸۹۱
۹/۱۶ ––––––––.۵۶۲۵ –––––––––۱۴٫۲۸۸
۳۷/۶۴ –––––––.۵۷۸۱۲۵ –––––––۱۴٫۶۸۴
۱۹/۳۲ –––––––.۵۹۳۷۵ ––––––––۱۵٫۰۸۱
۳۹/۶۴ –––––––.۶۰۹۳۷۵ –––––––۱۵٫۴۷۸
۵/۸ –––––––––.۶۲۵ ––––––––––۱۵٫۸۷۵
۴۱/۶۴ –––––––.۶۴۰۶۲۵ –––––––۱۶٫۲۷۲
۲۱/۳۲ –––––––.۶۵۶۲۵ ––––––––۱۶٫۶۶۹
۴۳/۶۴ –––––––.۶۷۱۸۷۵ –––––––۱۷٫۰۶۶
۱۱/۱۶ –––––––.۶۸۷۵ –––––––––۱۷٫۴۶۲
۴۵/۶۴ –––––––.۷۰۳۱۲۵ –––––––۱۷٫۸۵۹
۲۳/۳۲ –––––––.۷۱۸۷۵ ––––––––۱۸٫۲۵۶
۴۷/۶۴ –––––––.۷۳۴۳۷۵ –––––––۱۸٫۶۵۳
۳/۴ –––––––––.۷۵۰۰ –––––––––۱۹٫۰۵۰
۴۹/۶۴ –––––––.۷۶۵۶۲۵ –––––––۱۹٫۴۴۷
۲۵/۳۲ –––––––.۷۸۱۲۵ ––––––––۱۹٫۸۴۴
۵۱/۶۴ –––––––.۷۹۶۸۷۵ –––––––۲۰٫۲۴۱
۱۳/۱۶ –––––––.۸۱۲۵ –––––––––۲۰٫۶۳۸
۵۳/۶۴ –––––––.۸۲۸۱۲۵ –––––––۲۱٫۰۳۴
۲۷/۳۲ –––––––.۸۴۳۷۵ ––––––––۲۱٫۴۳۱
۵۵/۶۴ –––––––.۸۵۹۳۷۵ –––––––۲۱٫۸۲۸
۷/۸ –––––––––.۸۷۵۰ –––––––––۲۲٫۲۲۵
۵۷/۶۴ –––––––.۸۹۰۶۲۵ –––––––۲۲٫۶۲۲
۲۹/۳۲ –––––––.۹۰۶۲۵ ––––––––۲۳٫۰۱۹
۵۹/۶۴ –––––––.۹۲۱۸۷۵ –––––––۲۳٫۴۱۶
۱۵/۱۶ –––––––.۹۳۷۵ –––––––––۲۳٫۸۱۲
۶۱/۶۴ –––––––.۹۵۳۱۲۵ –––––––۲۴٫۲۰۹
۳۱/۳۲ –––––––.۹۶۸۷۵ ––––––––۲۴٫۶۰۶
۶۳/۶۳ –––––––.۹۸۴۳۷۵ –––––––۲۵٫۰۰۳
۱ –––––––––۱٫۰ ––––––––––––۲۵٫۴۰۰
EQUIVALENT OF COMMON FRACTIONS OF AN INCH
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۹۷
CONVERSION CHARTS
CONVERSION DATA
TABLES 79, 80, & 81
WATER PRESSURE TO FEET HEAD FEET HEAD OF WATER TO PSI
NOTE: One pound of pressure per square inch of water
equals 2.31 feet of water at 60° F. Therefore, to find the feet
head of water for any pressure not given in the table above,
multiply the pressure pounds per square inch by 2.31.
NOTE: One foot of water at 60° F equals .433 pounds pres-
sure per square inch.To find the pressure per square inch for
any feet head not given in the table above, multiply the feet
head by .433.
EQUIVALENTS OF PRESSURE AND HEAD
* Water at 68° F (20°C) ** Mercury at 32° F (0° C) *** 1 MPa (Megapascal) = 10 Bar = 1,000 N/m
۲ )
To convert from one set of units to another, locate the given unit in the left hand column, and multiply the numerical value by
the factor shown horizontally to the right, under the set of units desired.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۹۸
CONVERSION CHARTS
Poise = c.g.s. unit of absolute viscosity
Stoke = c.g.s. unit of kinematic viscosity
Centipoise = 0.01 poise
Centistoke = 0.01 stoke
Centipoises = centistokes x density (at temperature under consideration)
Reyn (1 lb. sec. per sq. in.) = 69 x 105 centipoises
CONVERSION DATA
TABLES 82 & 83
Kinematic Viscosity (in centistokes) =
Absolute Viscosity (in centipoise)
Density
REYNOLDS NUMBER, R.
Reynolds Number, R. is a dimensionless number or ratio of
velocity in ft. per sec. times the internal diameter of the pipe
in feet times the density in slugs per cu.ft. divided by the
absolute viscosity in lb. sec. per sq. ft.
This is equivalent to R=VD/v (VD divided by the kinematic
viscosity). Reynolds Number is of great significance because
it determines the type of flow, either laminar or turbulent,
which will occur in any pipe line, the only exception being a
critical zone roughly between an R of 2000 to 3500. Within
this zone it is recommended that problems be solved by
assuming that turbulent flow is likely to occur. Computation
using this assumption gives the greatest value of friction loss
and hence the result is on the safe side.
For those who prefer the greater precision of an algebraic
equation, Reynolds Number for a pipe line may also be com-
puted from the following formula:
where Q is in GPM, d is inside diameter of pipe in inches, and
V is kinematic viscosity in ft. 2 /sec.
PUMPING VISCOUS LIQUIDS WITH
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Centrifugal pumps are generally not suitable for pumping vis-
cous liquids.However, liquids with viscosities up to 2000 SSU
can be handled with Centrifugal pumps. The volume and
pressure of the pump will be reduced according to the follow-
ing table.
Percent reduction in flow and head and percent increase in
power when pumping viscous liquid instead of water are
shown in the table below.
R= VD
V
R=
Q
۲۹٫۴dv
VISCOSITY
SSU
Flow Reduction
GPM %
Head Reduction
Feet %
Horsepower
increase %
۳۰ ۱۰۰ ۲۵۰ ۵۰۰ ۷۵۰ ۱۰۰۰ ۱۵۰۰ ۲۰۰۰
– ۳ ۸ ۱۴ ۱۹ ۲۳ ۳۰ ۴۰
– ۲ ۵ ۱۱ ۱۴ ۱۸ ۲۳ ۳۰
– ۱۰ ۲۰ ۳۰ ۵۰ ۶۵ ۸۵ ۱۰۰
VISCOSITY CONVERSION
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۹۹
CONVERSION CHARTS
CONVERSION DATA BAUME
From Circular No. 59 Bureau of Standards.
LIQUIDS LIGHTER THAN WATER
Formula– sp gr =
۱۴۰
۱۳۰+ °Baume
UNITED STATES STANDARD BAUME SCALES
RELATION BETWEEN BAUME DEGREES AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY
TABLE 84
LIQUIDS HEAVIER THAN WATER
Formula– sp gr =
۱۴۵
۱۴۵- °Baume
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۱۰۰
CONVERSION CHARTS
TABLE 85
RELATIVE SIZE OF PARTICLES
RELATIVE SIZE OF PARTICLES
MAGNIFICATION 500 TIMES
۲ MICRONS
۸ MICRONS
۲۵ MICRONS
۵ MICRONS
۱۴۴ MICRONS – ۱۰۰ MESH
۷۴ MICRONS
۲۰۰ MESH
۴۴ MICRONS
۳۲۵ MESH
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۱۰۱
PUMP DATA
PUMP SIZING GUIDELINES
The following worksheet is designed to take you step-by-step through the process of selecting the proper pump for most
common applications. There are three major decisions to make when choosing the right pump. They are size, type and
best buy for the particular application. Each factor must be weighed carefully and a final selection refined through the
process of elimination.The following worksheet will help eliminate many common oversights in design selection. This is a
combination of many manufacturers specification request, so it may be photocopied and used by any applications engineer.
I. Sketch the layout of the proposed installation. Trying to pick a pump without a sketch of the system is like a miner
trying to work without his lamp. You are in the dark from start to finish. When drawing the system, show the piping, fittings,
valves and/or other equipment that may affect the system. Mark the lengths of pipe runs. Include all elevation changes.
II. Determine and study what is to be pumped. All of the following criteria will affect the pump selection in terms of
materials of construction and basic design.
What is the material to be pumped and its concentration?_________________________________________________
Is it corrosive?__________yes___________no_____________pH value.
Specific Gravity_________or pounds per gallon___________.Temperature: Min.______Max._______ degrees C. or F.
Viscosity at temperature(s) given above______________in Centipoise or_____________Seconds Saybolt Universal.
Is the material abrasive_____yes ______no. If so, what is the percentage of solid in solution______________and their
size range_________________ Min._________________________ Max.________________________
Capacity required (constant or variable)____________________________U.S. Gallons per minute (gpm)__________,
U.S. Gallon per hour (gph)_______,U.S. Gallons per day (gpd)_________,Cubic Centimeters per day (ccpd)_________.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۱۰۲
PUMP DATA
PUMP SIZING GUIDELINES
(continued)
III. Calculating the total pressure requirements.
The Inlet side of the pump
۱٫ What is the material of the inlet piping________________________________________ and size_____________?
(a) What is the total length of the inlet piping, in feet?_____________________
(b) Fittings Qty. Equivalent length (See page 58)
______ ____ x ______________ = ___________
______ ____ x ______________ = ___________
______ ____ x ______________ = ___________
۲٫ Total length (a+b above) for calculating friction loss ______________
۳٫ Friction loss per 100 foot of pipe (See pages 50 – 58) ________________
۴٫ Total inlet friction loss (use answer from #2 above multiplied by answer in #3 above, then divide the product
by 100) _______________________________________________________
۵٫ Static suction lift (See important terms under Hydraulic Fundamentals, pages 93-95)_____________
۶٫ Static suction head _____________
۷٫ Total inlet head = ( 4 + 5 – 6 from above)____________
NPSH A (Net Positive Suction Head, available) has been calculated to be _____________________.
The Discharge side of the pump
۸٫ What is the material of the discharge piping____________________and the size__________?
(c) What is the total length of the discharge piping, in feet?_______________
(d) Fittings Qty. Equivalent length (See page 58)
______ ____ x ______________ = ___________
______ ____ x ______________ = ___________
______ ____ x ______________ = ___________
۹٫ Total length (c+d above) for calculating friction loss ______________
۱۰٫ Friction loss per 100 foot of pipe (See pages 50 to 58) = ______________
۱۱٫ Total discharge friction loss (Use answer from #9 above multiplied by answer in #10 above then divide the product
by 100) _______________________________________________________________
۱۲٫ Static discharge head (See sketch) Total elevation difference between centerline of
the pumps inlet and the point of discharge.____________________________________
۱۳٫ Add any additional pressure requirements on the system: ie, filters, nozzles or equipment.________PSI
۱۴٫ Total Discharge Head = (11 + 12 + 13 from above)____________
۱۵٫ Total System Head = (7 + 12 + 13) _____________ in feet.
۱۶٫ Total Static Head = (5 – 6 + 12 +13) ____________ in feet.
۱۷٫ Total Friction Loss = (4 + 11) __________________in feet.
IV. Service Cycle
How many hours per day will this pump operate?____________How many days per week will it be used?___________
V. Construction Features
Is a sanitary pump design required?___________yes ________no.
Will the pump be required to work against a closed discharge?________yes________no.
Is it possible for this pumping system to run dry?__________yes________no.
Is a water-jacketed seal required to prevent crystallization on the seal faces?_______yes _______no.
Can the pump be totally isolated, drained, and flushed?_______yes_______no.
Does this application and environment require a chemically resistant epoxy coating? ____________yes____________no
.
VI. Drive Requirements
AC______ or DC______Motor, Voltage____________________ Cycle (Hz)____________Phase________________
Motor enclosure design________Open, ________Totally Enclosed,_________Explosion Proof,___________Sanitary,
Pneumatic (Air Motor)________ Plant air pressure available__________ psig.Volume of air available__________SCFM.
VII. What accessories will be required? Foot Valve____________________, Suction Strainer_____________________,
Check Valves ________________,Isolation Valves______________, Pressure Relief Valve_____________________,
Pressure Gauges___________, Flow indicators_________________, Filter/Lubricator/Regulator__________________.
FOR SERVICE, PLEASE CALL 1-800-877-HIPCO
۱۰۳
GLOSSARY OF
PIPING TERMS
ABRASION RESISTANCE:
Ability to withstand the effects of repeated wearing, rubbing, scrap-
ing, etc.
ACCEPTANCE TEST:
An investigation performed on an individual lot of a previously quali-
fied product, by, or under the observation of, the purchaser to estab-
lish conformity with a purchase agreement.
ACRYLIC RESINS:
A class of thermoplastic resins produced by polymerization of acrylic
acid derivatives.
ACRYLONITRILE – BUTADIENE • STYRENE (ABS):
Plastics containing polymers and/or blends of polymers, in which the
minimum butadiene content is 6 percent, the minimum styrene and/
or substituted styrene content is 15 percent, and the maximum con-
tent of all other monomers is not more than 5 percent, and lubricants,
stabilizers and colorants.
ADHESIVE:
A substance capable of holding materials together by surface attach-
ment.
AGING:
The effect of time on materials.
ALKYD RESINS:
A class of thermosetting resins produced by condensation of a poly-
based acid or anhydride and a polyhydric alcohol.
ANNEAL:
To prevent the formation of or remove stresses in plastic parts by
controlled cooling from a suitable elevated temperature.
BELL END:
The enlarged portion of a pipe that resembles the socket portion of
a fitting and that is intended to be used to make a joint by inserting
a piece of pipe into it. Joining may be accomplished by solvent
cements, adhesives, or mechanical techniques.
BEAM LOADING:
The application of a load to a pipe between two points of support,
usually expressed in pounds and the distance between the centers
of the supports.
BLISTER:
Undesirable rounded elevation of the surface of a plastic, whose
boundaries may be either more or less sharply defined, somewhat
resembling in shape a blister on the human skin. A blister may burst
and become flattened.
BOND:
To attach by means of an adhesive.
BURNED:
Showing evidence of thermal decomposition through some discol-
oration, distortion, or destruction of the surface of the plastic.
BURST STRENGTH:
The internal pressure required to break a pipe or fitting. This pres-
sure will vary with the rate of build-up of the pressure and the time
during which the pressure is held.
BUTYLENE PLASTICS:
Plastics based on resins made by the polymerization of butane or
copolymerization of butene with one or more unsaturated com-
pounds, the butene being in greatest amount of weight.
CELLULOSE:
Chemically a carbohydrate, which is the chief component of the solid
structure of plants, wood, cotton, linen, etc. The source of the cellu-
losic family of plastics.
CELLULOSE ACETATE BUTYRATE:
A class of resins made from a cellulose base. Either cotton tinters or
purified wood pulp, by the action of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and
butyric acid.
CEMENT:
A dispersion of solutions of a plastic in a volatile solvent.This mean-
ing is peculiar to the plastics and rubber industries and may or may
not be an adhesive composition.
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE:
(۱) The effect of specific chemicals on the properties of plastic piping
with respect to concentration, temperature, and time of exposure. (2)
The ability of a specific plastic pipe to render service for a useful peri-
od in the transport of a specific chemical at a specified concentration
and temperature.
COALESCENCE:
The union or fusing together of fluid globules or particles to form larg-
er drops or a continuous mass.
COLD FLOW:
Change in dimensions or shape of some materials when subjected
to external weight or pressure at room temperature.
COMPOUND:
A combination of ingredients before being processed or made into a
finished product. Sometimes used as a synonym for material formu-
lation.
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH:
The crushing load at failure applied to a specimen per unit area of
the resistance surface of the specimen.
CONDENSATION:
A chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine with
the separation of water. Also, the collection of water droplets from
vapor onto a cold surface.
COPOLYMER:
The product of simultaneous polymerization of two or more polymer-
izeable chemicals known as monomers.
CRAZING:
Fine cracks at or under the surface of a plastic.
CREEP:
The unit elongation of a particular dimension under load for a spe-
cific time following the initial elastic elongation caused by load appli-
cation. It is expressed usually in inches per inch per unit of time.
CURE:
To change the properties of a polymeric system into a final, more sta-
ble, usable condition by the use of heat, radiation or reaction with
chemical additives.
DEFLECTION TEMPERATURE:
The temperature at which a specimen will deflect a given distance at
a given load under prescribed conditions of test. See ASTM D648.
Formerly called heat distortion.
DEGRADATION:
A deleterious change in the physical properties of a plastic evi-
denced by impairment of these properties.
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GLOSSARY OF
PIPING TERMS
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT:
A value that serves as an index of the ability of a substance to resist
the transmission of an electrostatic force from one charged body to
another, as in a condenser. The lower the value, the greater the
resistance.The standard apparatus utilizes a vacuum, whose dielec-
tric constant is 1; in reference to the various materials interposed
between the charged terminals have the following values at 20° C :
air, 1.00058; glass, 3; benzene, 2.3; acetic aced, 6.2; ammonia, 15.5;
ethyl alcohol, 25: glycerol, 56; and counts for its unique behavior as
a solvent and in electrolytic solutions. Most hydrocarbons have high
resistance (low conductivity). Dielectric constant values decrease as
the temperature rises.
DIFFUSION:
The migration or wandering of the particles or molecules of a body
of fluid matter away from the main body through a medium or into
another medium.
DIMENSION RATIO:
The diameter of a pipe divided by the wall thickness. Each pipe can
have two dimension ratios depending upon whether the outside or
inside diameter is used. In practice, the outside diameter is used if
the standards requirement and manufacturing control are based on
this diameter.The inside diameter is used when this measurement is
the controlling one.
DRY-BLEND:
A free-flowing compound prepared without fluxing or addition of solvent.
DUROMETER:
Trade name of the Shore Instrument Company for an instrument that
measures hardness. The Durometer determines the “hardness of
rubber or plastics by measuring the depth of penetration (without
puncturing) of a blunt needle compressed on the surface for a short
period of time.
ELASTICITY:
That property of plastics materials by virtue of which they tend to
recover their original size and like properties.
ELONGATION:
The capacity to take deformation before failure in tension.Expressed
as a percentage of the original length.
EMULSION:
A dispersion of one liquid in another, possible only when they are
mutually insoluble.
ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS CRACKING:
Cracks that develop when the material is subjected to stress in the
presence of specific chemicals.
ESTER:
A compound formed by the reaction between an alcohol and an acid.
Many esters are liquids. They are frequently used as plasticizers in
rubber and plastic compounds.
EXTRUSION:
Method of processing plastic in a continuous or extended form by
forcing heat-softened plastic through an opening shaped like the
cross-section of the finished product.This is the method used to pro-
duce thermoplastic (PVC) pipe.
FABRICATE:
Method of forming a plastic into a finished article by machining draw-
ing, cementing, and similar operations.
FIBER STRESS:
The unit stress, usually in pounds per square inch (psi) in a piece of
material that is subjected to an external load.
FILLER:
A relatively inert material added to a plastic to modify its strength,
permanence, working properties or other qualities or to lower costs.
FLAMMABILITY:
The time a specimen will support a flame after having been exposed
to a flame for a given period.
FLEXURAL STRENGTH:
The pressure in pounds necessary to break a given sample when
applied to the center of the sample which has been supported at its
end.
FORMULATION:
A combination of ingredients before being processed or made into a
finished product.Sometimes used as a synonym for material or com-
pound.
FORMING:
A process in which the shape of plastic pieces such as sheets, rods,
or tubes is changed to a desired configuration.
FUSE:
To join two plastic parts by softening the material through heat or sol-
vents.
GENERIC:
Common names for types of plastic material. They may be either
chemical terms or coined names. They contrast with trademarks
which are the property of one company.
GRAVES TEAR STRENGTH:
The force required to rupture a specimen by pulling a prepared
notched sample.
HARDNESS:
A comparative gauge of resistance to indentation.
HEAT DISTORTION:
The temperature at which a specimen will deflect a given distance at
a given load.
HEAT JOINING:
Making a piper joint by heating the edges of the parts to be joined so
that they fuse and become essentially one piece with or without the
addition of additional material.
HEAT RESISTANCE:
The ability to withstand the effects of exposure to high temperature.
Care must be exercised in defining precisely what is meant when
this term is used. Descriptions pertaining to heat resistance proper-
ties include boilable, washable, cigarette-proof, sterilizable, etc.
HOOP STRESS:
The tensile stress, usually in pounds per square inch (psi) in the cir-
cumferential orientation in the wall of the pipe when the pipe con-
tains a gas or liquid under pressure.
HYDROSTATIC DESIGN STRESS:
The estimated maximum tensile stress in the wall of the pipe in the
circumferential orientation due to internal hydrostatic pressure that
can be applied continuously with a high degree of certainty that fail-
ure of the pipe will not occur.
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GLOSSARY OF
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GLOSSARY OF PIPING TERMS
HYDROSTATIC STRENGTH (quick):
The hoop stress calculated by means of the ISO equation at which
the pipe breaks due to an internal pressure build-up, usually within
۶۰ to 90 seconds.
IMPACT STRENGTH:
Resistance or mechanical energy absorbed by a plastic part to such
shocks as dropping and hard blows.
INJECTION MOLDING:
Method of forming a plastic to the desired shape by forcing heat-soft-
ened plastic into a relatively cool cavity where it rapidly solidifies
(freezes).
ISO EQUATION:
An equation showing the interrelations between stress, pressure,
and dimensions in pipe, namely
S P(lD + t) or P(OD)-t)
۲t 2t
where S = stress
P = pressure
ID = average inside diameter
OD = average outside diameter
t = minimum wall thickness
JOINT:
The location at which two pieces of pipe or a pipe and a fitting are
connected together. The joint may be made by an adhesive, a sol-
vent cement, or a mechanical device such as threads or a ring seal.
KETONES:
Compounds containing the carbonyl group (CO) to which is attached
two alkyl groups. Ketones, such as methyl ethyl ketone, are com-
monly used as solvents for resins and plastics.
LIGHT STABILITY:
Ability of a plastic to retain its original color and physical properties
upon exposure to sun or artificial light.
LONGITUDINAL STRESS:
The stress imposed on the long axis of any shape. It can be either a
compressive or tensile stress.
LONG-TERM HYDROSTATIC STRENGTH:
The estimated tensile stress in the wall of the pipe in the circumfer-
ential orientation (hoop stress) that when applied continuously will
cause failure of the pipe at 100,000 hours (11.43 years). These
strengths are usually obtained by extrapolation of log-log regression
equations or plots.
LUBRICANTS:
A substance used to decrease the friction between solid faces some-
times used to improve processing characteristics of plastic composi-
tions.
MODULUS:
The load in pounds per square inch (or kilos per square centimeter)
of initial cross-sectional area necessary to produce a stated per-
centage elongation which is used in the physical description of plas-
tics (stiffness).
MODULUS OF ELASTICITY:
The ratio of the stress per square inch to the elongation per inch due
to this stress.
MOLDING, COMPRESSION:
A method of forming objects from plastics by placing the material in
a confining mold cavity and applying pressure and usually heat.
MONOMER:
The simplest repeating structural unit of a polymer. For additional
polymers this presents the original unpolymerized compound.
OLEFIN PLASTICS:
Plastics based on resins made by the polymerization of olefins or
copolymerization of olefins with other unsaturated compounds, the
olefins being in greatest amount by weight. Polyethylene, polypropy-
lene, and polybutylene are the most common olefin plastics encoun-
tered in pipe.
ORANGE PEEL:
Uneven surface somewhat resembling an orange peel.
ORGANIC CHEMICAL:
Originally applied to chemicals derived from living organisms, as dis-
tinguished from “inorganic” chemicals found in minerals and inani-
mate substances; modern chemists define organic chemicals more
exactly as those which contain the element carbon.
PHENOL RESINS:
Resins made by reaction of a phenolic compound or tar acid with an
aldehyde; more commonly applied to thermosetting resins made
from pure phenol and formaldehyde.
PLASTIC:
A material that contains as an essential ingredient an organic sub-
stance of large molecular weight is solid in its finished state, and at
some state in its manufacture or in its processing into finished arti-
cles, can be shaped by flow.
PLASTICITY:
A property of plastics and resins which allows the material to be
deformed continuously and permanently without rupture upon the
application of a force that exceeds the yield value of the material.
PLASTIC CONDUIT:
Plastic pipe or tubing used as an enclosure for electrical wiring.
PLASTIC PIPE:
A hollow cylinder of a plastic material in which the wall thickness is
usually small when compared to the diameter and in which the inside
and outside walls are essentially concentric.
PLASTIC TUBING:
A particular size of plastics pipe in which the outside diameter is
essentially the same as that of copper tubing.
POLYBUTYLENE:
A polymer prepared by the polymerization of butene – 1 as the sole
monomer.
POLYETHYLENE:
A polymer prepared by the polymerization of ethylene as the sole
monomer.
POLYMER:
A product resulting from a chemical change involving the successive
addition of a large number of relatively small molecules (monomer)
to form the polymer and whose molecular weight is usually a multi-
ple of that of the original substance.
POLYMERIZATION:
Chemical change resulting in the formation of a new compound
whose molecular weight is usually a large multiple of that of the orig-
inal substance.
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GLOSSARY OF
PIPING TERMS
THERMOFORMING:
Forming with the aid of heat.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY:
Capacity of a plastic material to conduct heat.
THERMAL EXPANSION:
The increase in length of a dimension under the influence of an
increase in temperature.
THERMOPLASTIC:
In a plastic which is thermoplastic in behavior, adj. capable of being
repeatedly softened by increase of temperature and hardened by
decrease of temperature.
THERMOSETTING:
Plastic materials which undergo a chemical change and harden per-
manently when heated in processing. Further heating will not soften
these materials.
TRANSLUCENT:
Permitting the passage of light, but diffusing it so that objects beyond
cannot be clearly distinguished.
TURBULENCE:
Any deviation from parallel flow in a pipe due to rough inner walls,
obstructions, or direction changes.
VINYL PLASTICS:
Plastics based on resins made from vinyl monomers, except those
specifically covered by other classification, such as acrylic and
styrene plastics. Typical vinyl plastics are polyvinyl chloride, or
polyvinyl monomers with unsaturated compounds.
VIRGIN MATERIAL:
A plastic material in the form of pellets, granules, powder, floc or liq-
uid that has not been subjected to use or processing other than that
required for its original manufacture.
VISCOSITY:
Internal friction of a liquid because of its resistance to shear, agita-
tion or flow.
VOLATILE:
Property of liquids to pass away by evaporation.
WATER ABSORPTION:
The percentages by weight or water absorbed by a sample immersed
in water. Dependent upon area exposed and time of exposure.
WELDING:
The joining of two or more pieces of plastic by fusion of the material
in the pieces at adjoining or nearby areas either with or without the
addition of plastic from another source.
YIELD STRENGTH:
The stress at which a plastic material exhibits a specified limiting
permanent set.
YIELD POINT:
The point at which a plastic material will continue to elongate at no
substantial increase in load during a short test period.
YIELD STRESS:
The stress at which a plastic material elongates without further
increase of stress. Up to this point, the stress/strain relationship is
linear (Young’s Modules).
POLYPROPYLENE:
A polymer prepared by the polymerization of propylene as the sole monomer.
POLYSTYRENE:
A plastic based on a resin made by polymerization of styrene as the
sole monomer.
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE:
Polymerized vinyl chloride, a synthetic resin which, when plasticized
or softened with other chemicals, has some rubber like properties. It
is derived from acetylene and hydrochloric acid.
PRESSURE:
When expressed with reference to pipe the force per unit area exert-
ed by the medium in the pipe.
STABILIZER:
A chemical substance which is frequently added to plastic com-
pounds to inhibit undesirable changes in the material, such as dis-
coloration due to heat or light.
STIFFNESS FACTOR:
A physical property of plastic pipe that indicates the degree of flexi-
bility of the pipe when subjected to external loads.
STRAIN:
The ratio of the amount of deformation to the length being deformed
caused by the application of a load on a piece of material.
STRENGTH:
The mechanical properties of a plastic such as a load or weight car-
rying ability, and ability to withstand sharp blows. Strength properties
include tensile, flexural, and tear strength, toughness, flexibility, etc.
STRESS:
When expressed with reference to pipe, the force per unit area in the
wall of the pipe in the circumferential orientation due to internal
hydrostatic pressure.
STRESS CRACK:
External or internal cracks in a plastic caused by tensile stresses less
than that of its short-time mechanical strength.
STRESS RELAXATION:
The decrease of stress with respect to time in a piece of plastic that
is subject to an external load.
STYRENE PLASTICS:
Plastics based on resins made by the polymerization of styrene or
copolymerization of styrene with other unsaturated compounds, the
styrene being in greatest amount by weight.
STYRENE-RUBBER-PLASTICS:
Compositions based on rubbers and styrene plastics, the styrene
plastics being in greatest amount by weight.
SUSTAINED PRESSURE TEST:
A constant internal pressure test for 1000 hours.
TEAR STRENGTH:
Resistance of a material to tearing.
TENSILE STRENGTH:
The capacity of a material to resist a force tending to stretch it.
Ordinarily the term is used to denote the force required to stretch a
material to rupture, and is known variously as “breaking point,”
“breaking stress,” “ultimate tensile strength,” and sometimes erro-
neously as “breaking strain.” In plastics testing, it is the load in
pounds per square inch or kilos per square centimeter of original
cross-sectional area, supported at the moment of rupture by a piece
of test sample on being elongated.
GLOSSARY OF PIPING TERMS