Oil and Gas

The oil and gas industry is one of industries most important and influential in the entire world to come, and
income in many countries through this industry.

In this article, we study a comprehensive survey of the industry, we’ll pay to and from various aspects, it will be reviewed.

For information on the field with us.

1# the oil and gas industry mean? (petroleum industry)

The oil and gas industry includes the processes of world exploration, extraction, etc., filtration, etc. transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing petroleum products.

The largest volume products of the industry, mazut, gasoline is.

Also, the oil raw material of many chemical products, including the following:

  • Pharmacy
  • Solvents
  • Fertilizers
  • Pesticides
  • Aromatic substances, synthetic and plastic

The monetary value of the extra oil and oil products, which leads to the famous it to “Black Gold” is.

The industry is usually to three, except for the major can be divided into:

  • Industries upstream
  • Industries among manual
  • Of downstream industries


2# history of the petroleum industry

Oil exploration to thousands of years ago are. but the beginning of the activity of the vast oil industry related to ۲ century ago.

The first country active in the field of industry, what is oil?

Russia was the first country in the years 1825 amount of 3500 tons of oil production.

This country, its production by mid-century, two against the village.

حفر تونل دستی

Since the beginning of the oil drilling in Azerbaijan, the current in 1846 in Baku, two pipeline in the Russian Empire was made that
one of the pipeline 833 kilometers to transfer oil from the Caspian Sea to the port of Baton Black Sea in 1906, was
another pipeline 162 kilometers for the transfer of oil from Chechnya to the Caspian was.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Russian oil, almost half of world production will be allocated to
international markets have dominated the world of …
but in the first quarter of the twentieth century., United States from Russia as the largest oil producer of the world overtook and
continued until the 1920s., the oilfields in many countries including Canada, Poland, Sweden, Ukraine, United States, Peru, and Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of the establishment was that
of the petroleum industry of the United States and Russia and went global.

3# the importance of the oil and gas industry

Oil for many industries, it is vital and
to maintain the civilization of the current industry is essential.

The same applies to a cause of concern underlying many countries.

Oil a large percentage of energy consumption in the world included,
a minimum of 32 percent for Europe and Asia and 53 percent for the Middle East.

The largest oil consumer countries are advanced.

United States 18% of the oil produced in the year 2015, the consumer has.

The production, distribution, purification and retail oil generally represents the largest industry in the world in terms of value for the dollar.

State such as the United States government subsidized public heaviness to the oil companies being awarded the work.

The government in almost every stage of the exploration and extraction of oil, including
the cost of rent oilfields and drilling equipment, etc. tax rebates, a major at the disposal of the oil companies are.

In the recent years. the advanced techniques of recovery and extraction (especially فرنکینگ or failure of the hydraulic) as a pioneer of the oil industry, has been selected to …
because this new technology has a vital role, and the controversial new method of extracting.

Also see
The order of failure of hydraulic mean?

4# processes the petroleum industry

The overall process industry, oil, petroleum crude oil, refined and does
it to a lot of products become available.


These processes include:

  • Operation field of oil and gas
  • Operation processing plant gas
  • Operation purification and refinery and technology filtration

5# pollution caused by the processes of the oil and gas industry

Due to the activities of the pollutants for the release of toxins and waste dangerously, which are produced
in the environment are in … but how to reduce pollution in the oil industry, what?

The pollution from this industry to design and way of operating that depend on
it can be through actions such as the following, to the extent considerable control:

  • Periodicity of maintenance and inspection
  • Type, age and quality of the equipment
  • Operating conditions
  • Equipment for extraction and processing
  • Environmental regulation and protection applicable

The actions of the weak in this area caused by intentional actions, and documented.

Such actions of the people exposed to different chemicals, toxic substances, including
significant amounts of carcinogens, such as benzene puts.


In advanced countries such as America, oilfields across the US and identified
the damages case analysis placed.

However, the BP oil spill in 2010, large amounts of oil and gas methane into the deep water Gulf of Mexico, entered the village.

The subject of talk, big tits, environmental goers and serious concerns for the health of the Ocean Village.

Oil spill issues and negative impacts on sea creatures wildlife, and surrounding communities can affect that
may last for decades, ” he continued.

6# the environmental impact of the oil industry, what?

Floating Oil Drilling rig structure

1-6# water and soil pollution

Some of the operations of the oil industry is responsible for water pollution through by-product purification, and the leak is.

Although failure of hydraulic significantly the extraction of natural gas has increased in …
but some of the beliefs and evidence suggests that contamination of methane due to this gas extraction increased.

But other reasons of pollution by oil industry mean?

Leaks from underground tanks and refinery, abandoned as well might,
causing contamination of the groundwater in the surrounding areas, be.

Such hydrocarbons consisting of refined oil against biodegradation are resistant and
it is known that for years in contaminated soil remains.

To expedite this process, filtration, biological contaminants, hydrocarbons, oil, often with the use of the destruction of aerobic used.

Of course, more recently, other methods of bioremediation, such as plant treatment and heat treatment have been evaluated, that
may, in this context, the impact of the transition are.

2-6# air pollution

The oil industry is the largest source of industrial emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is.

The combustion of fossil fuels causes the production of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants as byproducts can be.

Pollutants include nitrogen oxides, etc. dioxide, sulfur, volatile organic compounds and heavy metals are.

mud pump well drilling

3-6# climate change

Injuries resulting from the creation of greenhouse gases in the oil industry, what?

Greenhouse gases resulting from fossil fuel causes global warming are.

Earlier in the year 1959, at a symposium by the American Petroleum Institute for the centennial of the oil industry of America will be held in
the Edward Teller, etc., physicist, about the risk of global climate change warned.

Edward Teller explained that carbon dioxide in the atmosphere creates a greenhouse effect and be
burning more fossil fuels could be ice poles the North and the South will melt, and the Earth’s heart.

The same concerns related to climate change, a lot of individuals and organizations to alternative energy are interested in, and
start using other methods of energy such as the sun, wind, etc., have.

7# country in the sphere of oil and gas industry

As it was said already, many countries in the oil industry are active in …
but this activity is subject to the oil reserves available in every country returns is
the big question in the mind of contacts created.

The greatest activists in this field which companies are and their role in the dynamics of the industry, what is oil?

As you can imagine, the first company active in the field of oil and industry, the oil company, Aramco, is
in Saudi Arabia are located.

The second largest country in the list in Iran and later in diameter are located.

The image below, the amount of the share of each country and company active in the field of displays.

مواد ضد رسوب دیگ بخار (DM)

8# supply chain in the oil and gas industry

Every supply chain in the major industries includes the configuration, management, and continuous improvement of collection operations, consecutive, which includes several of the party.

In a supply chain, a company with the top suppliers of manual and distributors, downstream of their relationship is.

The aim of the company supply chain management (SCM), which
includes providing maximum services to the customer with the lowest possible cost.

The global supply chain of oil and gas include activities such as the following:

  • Shipping domestic and international
  • Ordering and inventory control
  • Handle material
  • Facilitate import/export
  • Information technology


When someone wishes to describe that a company or service in which part of the supply chain of oil and gas are,
usually of commercial terms “industries upstream” and “downstream industrial” and …
but the overall supply chain of oil and gas can be achieved through three different sections in this industry analysis will:

  1. Industries upstream
  2. Industries of the middle
  3. Of downstream industries

Whatever the company or services to be of service to the end user approached.
in the industries downstream in the supply chain of oil and gas will fall.

In addition, each of these sections features have their own
in this article in more detail, we will.

جوهر نمک (هیدروکلریک اسید)
hidrocholoric asid

1-8# crafts, top manual

Crafts, top manually, too, such as the E&P (exploration and production) is known to be.

This part of the petroleum industry includes all activities that are on the field happens.

This process involves processes and operational, which include:

  • Searching for potential crude oil and natural gas for underground or زیرآبی
  • Drilled exploration wells
  • The extraction of sand oil
  • Exploit oil from wells that crude oil and or natural gas crude to the surface of the Earth for them.

Such activities, which includes various studies and environmental analysis research is
carried out in this department accepts.

مواد ضد رسوب دیگ بخار (DM)

1) the specification of the industries upstream

This part of the supply chain in the oil and gas industry around the Wells focused and works.

This means that the processes such as the following monitoring are:

  • The location of the
  • The depth of the drilled wells
  • How to design
  • Build and manage it

2) technical crafts, the top manually in the oil and gas industry

Four major features brand that crafts high manual will describe as follows:

  • The risk is high.
  • Efficiency is high.
  • Under the impact of the policy, world are located.
  • A very capital-intensive and dependent on technology.

Usually, the activities, industries, high, manual, long time to learn
to invest a lot, especially in the initial stage (exploration) need.

3) different sectors, industries, high, manual

Different sectors, industries, high, manual, include the following:

  • Offshore drilling
  • The extraction of sand, oil
  • Supply and services
  • Build
  • Survey of geology
  • Exploration, drilling and Production (E&P)

2-8# crafts, Intermediate oil and natural gas

Industries of the middle in the supply chain in the oil and gas industry include operational, that
of downstream industries and industries with high-handy to attached does.

Four major groups of services in the industries of middle to be provided:

  1. Processing
  2. Storage
  3. Shipping
  4. Marketing

Industries of the middle in the oil and gas industry because of the low risk of capital are well-known in …
but the investments and assets in the industries of the middle to the health of the industries top manually depends on.

1) the activities of the industries of the middle in the oil and gas industry

The first step in crafts, middle, collecting oil and gas is that in industries upstream produced.

Oil through a network of pipelines directly to a central location can be moved and removed.
but when turn to collect natural gas, natural looks, etc., the process is slightly different.
This means that not be the gas in the well, or close to it is stored.

The reason for removing water and other impurities, must be refined and processed to be.

After being separated, NGL, etc. can be natural gas through pipelines, send help.

The next stage of processing, track and field, is that
as the first stage of processing of oil and gas from the field of production, drought, or sea begins.

During processing, track and field, you should units be created that the following activities do:

  • The rate of production of oil, gas, and water that the tank can be produced measure them.
  • Oil, gas and water separate from each other, they.
  • Impurities, clean work-up the crude oil or natural gas, to sell or process the next prepare them.
  • Crude oil or gas is temporarily stored in (the work long enough, until ready to transfer to process the next to be).

Oil and natural gas, refined, after the separation process and store, must go through a complex network of infrastructure, transport, distribution and
or for storage or further processing, shipping them.

3-8# crafts downstream

Of downstream industries in the oil and gas industry, the last part in the supply chain of oil and gas.

This industry operations to the place of sale to final consumers in the fall.

In part, the processes of filtration of crude oil and distribution of products its side (gasoline, NGL, etc., fuel, etc., jet fuel, oil, heating, etc.) up to
the level of retail sales and sales to final consumers is included.

Also see
Fossil fuel

Also other products in the petrochemical industry, from products of downstream industries are. Like:

  • Lubricants
  • Synthetic rubber
  • Plastic
  • Fertilizers
  • Pesticides

Also, the bottom section of the manual play an important role in the industries of pharmaceutical, medical, packaging and manufacturing other products, with a base of oil and gas.


1) specification of downstream industries

The main feature of downstream industries is that this is a trade margin is
of complexity is high.

Companies in the industries of the bottom of the manual should always be the global perspective in mind, and
this includes work, marketing, and delivery of final products to retailers and final consumers is.

The complexity of the activities of downstream industries because there is a section of the chain with the scope of different activities that
include the following:

  • Refine
  • Petrochemical
  • Distribution
  • Marketing major
  • Retail

2) the main part of downstream industries in the oil and gas industry

The main sections in the industries of the bottom of the manual include:

  • Oil refining
  • Supply and trading
  • Marketing products
  • Wholesale and retail

The two types of company that exists in these sections are competing and
as the company integrated and independent companies are known.

The company Integrated only in a particular sector of activity, not
in both the industries, upstream and downstream in the supply chain are present.

Independent companies as well as the names suggests, no activity in the industries of high manual do not.