ferric chloride (chloroferric)

What is ferric chloride (chloroferric)? Iron chloride , also called iron(III) chloride, is an industrial-scale commodity chemical…

A coagulant () , the compounds are neutral, the load suspended particles existing cause clots storage particles can be. These compounds are in the process of the filtration of water in abundance, are used. Including a variety of this material can be applied to mineral salts, such as alum and polymer compounds noted. In a continuation of the text’re going to take you with how to function Coagulant and the variety of it, the more familiar we then connect with us.

Why use a coagulant are important?

These materials, including compounds that are in the process of purification of water for the separation of suspended particles and phosphorus removal, additional available water in abundance, are used. These materials are generally two categories of organic and inorganic are divided. Usually, a variety of organic, for the separation of solid particles and liquid, and the production of sediment are used. Among the most important organic compounds can be poly-Amine and PolyDADMACs cited. These compounds are in a state of cationic can cause neutralize the suspended particles with a negative charge and create Microfluck, and so on. The benefits of the use of this material can be attributed to the lack of influence on the pH, production, sediment and sludge, the less and less amounts required paracentesis.

A variety of Coagulant in water treatment

Coagulant upload different types include alum, ferrous sulfate and poly-electrolyte , the cationic be. All this material with a low zeta potential system, colloid, etc., leading to more collisions, particles, colloidal to each other and continue on with the slow down it with each other, concluded work. Of salts, aluminum, alkaline and acidic for clean and transparent water used. Iron salts trivalent very functional are more, but دوظرفیتی it is also the direction of phosphorus removal from water used. Generally, a coagulant are divided into two categories are:

  • Coagulant organic (polymer)
  • Coagulant mineral


This is a coagulant in order to separation of solids present in the water, and the production of sludge used. Two types of chemical, water treatment, organic there. The first case of poly-amines such as poly diallyl disulphide, methyl ammonium chloride, or (polyDADMAC) is the most used. These materials have the greatest impact on sewage treatment plant and raw water is very turbid have and neutralize the particles work. The second type of organic chemicals, sewage, etc., melamine – formaldehyde and tannin is meant to be concluded building materials, colloidal contained in the water used. This material, particularly in removing the sludge are very convenient. Why that can be organic materials such as oils and fats to absorb.

The superiority of a coagulant polymer compared with other coagulant such as alum, is that the coagulant polymer has a molecular mass is very high, that can easily cause the settling of the be .

The structure of a coagulant polymer

The most common groups of anionic materials coagulant in the structure of the poly الکترولیتهای anionic group کربوکسیلات (–COO -), Department of فسفنات (–PO3H-, –PO32-) and sulfonate (–SO3 -), respectively. In poly الکترولیتهای cationic most common group factor amines the first type and two M and the fourth (–NH3+, =NH2+ & ≡N+) are.

The type of anion contained in the structure of the coagulant polymer and how to repeat it in the structure of the polymer represents the properties of the poly-electrolyte, such as solubility in water and other aqueous solutions, polar, and hydrogen bonding (like alcohol ), the electrical conductivity and the viscosity of the solution is. Unlike Poly الکترولیتهای non-ionic, these properties strongly to the amount of pH and salt concentration depends on. All poly الکترولیتهای natural or synthetic, can scale a lot of production are. Poly الکترولیتهای like natural pectin, etc. alginate and poly پپتایدها are. Examples of poly الکترولیتهای synthetic also Poly allyl آمینها and salt their industry.

Including the most important Poly-electrolyte used in water treatment can be Poly baseball, polyamide, noted that in continuation to it, the more we will pay :

Poly baseball, polyamide,

The word Poly baseball, polyamide, any polymer refers to which one of the مونومرهای it baseball, polyamide, be. If you want to more carefully about this matter, we examined naming ایوپاک it. (poly (prop-2-enamide, which is a polymer soluble in water, and polymerization مونومرهای baseball, polyamide, and N, N’-methylenebis) acrylamide) is obtained.

 Poly baseball, polyamide, upload پلیمرهایی inflated self-lubricating, which are the only type of commercial it, (poly (2-propenamide is it Poly baseball, polyamide, is said to be. These types of polymers depending on the type of کاربریشان can be linear or cross-linking to be built. PAM viscosity of the water will increase and cause clotting of the particles existing on it. Polymer cross-linking can be very large amount of water due to the presence of groups آمیدی that with water, forming hydrogen bonding, they will absorb that this type of pam gel called. Molecular weight of Poly baseball, polyamide brand from 105 to more than 107 industry.

Poly baseball, polyamide, with مونومرهای baseball, polyamide, alone, non-ionic. For the attainment of Poly baseball, polyamide, anionic need is مونومرهای acrylate or 2- (acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate (AMPS as well, with different percentages on the structure of Poly baseball, polyamide available.

Also in the structure of the coagulant , the (coagulants) and clot builder Poly baseball آمیدهای cationic instead of مونومرهای baseball, polyamide, other مونومرها, including:

  • dimethyldiallylammonium
  • (ethanaminium (N, N, N-trimethyl-2-((1-oxo-2-propenyl) oxy –
  • 1,2-dimethyl-5-vinylpyridinum

Are present.

The application of PAM in the environment

Generally, Poly baseball, polyamide is widely used in the field of environmental application, including :

1) as to improve developer viscosity-increasing harvest oil (EOR), and most recently, as well as reducing friction in the failure of the hydraulic or HVHF

2) as a coagulant and clot maker in water purification and water from sludge

3) as the agent of healing properties of the soil in the application of agricultural

In the table below the structural Poly baseball آمیدهای different is visible:

PolyacrylamidePoly baseball, polyamide, non-ionic


acrylic acid, hydrolyzed
Poly baseball, polyamide, anionic


Poly baseball, polyamide, cationic


Coagulant polymeric cationic

Poly baseball آمیدهای cationic as well as the separator, the emulsion and to increase the filtration efficiency and water from sludge are used. Like a coagulant, and Eli this article also neutralize the surface charge the colloidal particles, and then settling them contribute to the separation of solid materials) and of the volume of sludge residue also reduces.

In wastewater treatment paper industry this matter, settling velocity increases. Gel electrophoresis for the separation cloud molecules is also one of the important uses of other, this material is less than other application to it is when an electric current from the midst of the gel Poly baseball, polyamide, passes proteins or nucleic acids toward the positive electrode moving. Since that move them to the load and the size of the molecules depend on each of the molecules to the certain Matrix gel-moving. Poly baseball, polyamide, non-ionic, for the applications of the mining and textile industries are also used.

One of the applications of Poly baseball, polyamide, used as stabilizers in creams, lotions and Other Products, Beauty and health. Although the article itself problem, and not dangerous, but مونومرهای ingredients, it is strongly carcinogenic . The EU for products that ازپلی baseball, polyamide, making them is used, limit the amount of mono-baseball amides has set, but the United States still ban for the use of this material set is not. This substance in the cosmetic products, such as moisturizer, the face. anti aging products, etc., lotions, and. hair products, and sunscreens are used.

Polymer clot maker

In the discussion of the use of this material coagulant and clot maker in water treatment and effluent should be noted that the impact of the process of clot storage based on the reduction of turbidity, TSS, COD, and the color is checked, and, according to research in optimal conditions, these parameters up to 90% reduction to find. The amount of extremely high use of polymers as the clotting mechanism due to the convenience to use them, and the lack of the need to continuously adjust pH. However, very small amounts of them has a huge impact in the field of consumer, like wastewater treatment, there is.

Main characteristics پلیمرهایی as clotting mechanism, are used may be as follows:

امفوتر/ anionic/ cationic/non-ionicSurface
1 to 3 millionLowMolecular weight
3 to 6 millionAverage
6 to 10 millionStandard
10 to 15 millionHigh
ببشتر 15 millionToo much
1 to 10 %LowSurface
10 to 40 %Average
40 to 80 %High
80-100 %Too much

Poly baseball, polyamide, due to being economic and hash easy about a lot of attention is located. This feature, there is also that this substance as the clotting mechanism in different weight and density of the time different, and in three types of anionic, non-ionic وکاتیونی the synthesis of the village . According to customer’s requirement type of surface and the amount of molecular weight can be changed. In the figure below, the performance of this substance in the purification of wastewater and the port between the particles observed.

Coagulant mineral

This material is typically attributed to the type of your organic, etc. cheaper and more economical and are in a wide range of processes, filtration, storage are used. Property acidic and have the same cause when maintenance and carry it should be مرقبت the necessary place. Coagulant mineral, especially in the purification of raw water with turbidity bottom are effective in the absence of the adequacy of a coagulant, organic, etc. it can be use for filtering this type of water used. These materials are generally based on aluminium or iron. Aluminum sulphate is the most commonly used chemical for wastewater treatment in the world. Other examples of this material can be aluminum chloride, etc. , Poly aluminium chloride, etc. of ferrous sulfate and ferric chloride noted.

Continue to the features of a coagulant good reference is:

  • Containing Group, a sulfate or chloride is.
  • Liquid or solid. Mostly in aqueous solution are such as aluminium sulfate or ferric chloride.
  • Acidic or alkaline. Salts of aluminum, such as poly aluminium chloride certain level of alkalinity have.
  • The ability to connect to the number of atoms of two or trivalent have schoolchildren salt آهم can serve as salt دوظرفیتی act.

Factors affecting the process انعقادسازی

Many factors affect the performance Coagulant are effective, and as such, it can be pointed to the following:

  • Alkalinity of water
  • the pH of the environment
  • Temperature
  • The amount of suspended solids present in the water
  • The amount of organic material present in the water

Increase the amount of pH, amount of alkalinity water, the concentration of suspended solids, temperature and also reduce the organic material, the better the process of clot storage can help.

What is the difference between Coagulant And فلوکولانت there?

Coagulant to the meaning of the coagulation developer is while فلوکولانت clot is. The process of coagulation is a chemical process in which ناهمنام out again, and attract loads ناهمنام to each other takes place. While clots of a process is physical and involves charge neutralization is not. The process of coagulation-clot storage can be used as a preliminary step or intermediate between the other processes, water treatment, or wastewater, such as filtration and sedimentation, used.

Application Coagulant upload

In water purification, etc. from Coagulant to remove a wide range of hazardous substances include organic matter and pathogens, minerals and toxic substances, such as arsenic, etc., phosphorus, chemical and fluoride from the water can be used.

From other applications, it can be pointed to the following:

  • Medical applications for blood clots
  • Paper manufacturing
  • Textiles
  • Operation of oil and gas
  • Mines