Ammonium Persulfate (APS)

Ammonium persulfate is an odorless and crystal-free mineral compound with the chemical formula NH 2 S 2 8 O 8 or H 8 N 2 O 4 S 2 and a molar mass of 228.18. This substance is considered a strong oxidizing agent that is used in polymer chemistry, production of detergents and bleaches. Ammonium persulfate is a strong oxidizer that has corrosive properties when exposed to heat.

This substance, which is also referred to as APS for short, is easily dissolved in water, and as the temperature of water increases and it heats up, its solubility also increases. Ammonium persulfate is produced in the form of white solid crystals with high oxidizing power, it easily absorbs moisture and takes the form of a cake. It also does not cause burning on its own; But it may cause spontaneous combustion of other organic substances. It decomposes and disintegrates at a temperature of 120 degrees Celsius. as ammonium peroxydisulfate , AP and APS in the market. This material is also known

Item of AnalysisStandard
Purity by (GC) ,%≥98.5
Ignition residue,%≤0.02
Chloride and chlorate(Cl),%≤0.001
Iron(Fe), %≤0.0005
Heavy metal(Pb), %≤0.0005
Water, %≤0.1

Properties of ammonium persulfate

The appearance of ammonium persulfate with a purity of 98% is pale yellow to colorless salt or white crystal powder. This substance does not have any smell and like other sulfate peroxides, it is produced during electrolytic processes.

Ammonium persulfate has a very high solubility property, which is done during an endothermic process. The main solvents of this material are water and methanol. Its solubility in water (80 grams per 100 ml) is also 2.58%.

The melting temperature of this crystalline solid is 120 degrees, the boiling point is 1388 degrees Celsius, and its density is 1.98 grams per cubic centimeter. Its atomic density is 98.1 grams per liter and its stability temperature is 120 degrees Celsius. It is also a strong oxidizing agent that does not burn easily but can lead to the production of organic matter.

The remarkable thing about ammonium persulfate is that it releases toxic gases such as sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide and ammonia when exposed to heat and heat to decompose. This substance decomposes at a temperature of 120 degrees Celsius. It also has high moisture absorption power and absorbs it easily.

Ammonium persulfate explosion is possible in two cases:

  1. Exposure to extreme heat or combustion
  2. The combination of this strong oxidizer with reducing agent, sulfur, phosphorus and…

Aqueous solution of ammonium persulfate at room temperature is quickly acidified and at higher temperatures, gradually and slowly, forming O2 and NH4HSO4. When this solution is heated to 120 degrees Celsius, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, oxygen and ammonia are released.

Ammonium peroxydisulfate is highly sensitive to moisture. For this reason, by placing in a humid environment, it decomposes and releases hydrogen peroxide.

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Application of industrial ammonium persulfate

This material has many applications in other different industries. Among its most important uses, we can mention the paper industry and paper production lines. This substance starch to adjust the viscosity of industrial   helps . Due to the fact that the price of oxidized starch is higher than its raw samples, many production units combine ammonium persulfate with raw starch in order to reduce the cost of the starch they need for paper grinding and reduce it to the minimum possible. . In addition, it is also used as a bleaching agent and food preservative.

Some other uses of industrial ammonium persulfate at different levels are:

  • Production of detergents, cleaners, soaps, bleaching agents, etc.
  • Paint and paper production
  • Wood holder
  • Plastic and paper making
  • Acidity regulator in food
  • Initiator in the polymerization process of olefins
  • Wheat, flour, mold and toasted yeast modifier
  • Preservative and PH regulator of prepared and packaged food
  • Oxidation agent and help to purify yeasts
  • Raw material for the production of chemical fertilizers
  • Copper engraving on printed circuit boards
  • Molten metal materials in cutting and removing oil and oil industry
  • Oxidizing agent, molecular polymer initiator, decomposition reagents, photographic fixing agent and reducing agent
  • Emulsion polymerization initiator in monomorphenyl chloride
  • Production of exfoliators and other cosmetic products
  • To remove Pyrogrul stains
  • As a depolarizer in batteries
  • A standard ingredient in hair bleach
  • As an oxidant in organic chemistry
  • On printed circuit boards
  • including combinations of pesticides, insecticides, fungicides and herbicides in the form of water-soluble sprays

Production of ammonium persulfate

This method was first introduced in 1891 by Hugh Marshall. Ammonium persulfate is produced by electrolysis of a cold and concentrated solution of ammonium sulfate in sulfuric acid with a high current density. This method is performed using platinum electrodes. In fact, at the same time as the electrolysis of the solution, liquid electrolyte is produced. Then HSO4 reacts with ammonium sulfate to produce ammonium persulfate. In the end, the produced chemical goes through the steps of filtration, crystallization, centrifugal separation and drying to turn into ammonium persulfate crystals.


cationic compound NH 4 + It is called ammonium (ammonium or aminium). by creating a bond between a hydrogen cation and an ammonia molecule (NH 3 This compound is obtained ). This basic compound has an acidic medium and many salts are obtained from it. Among the ammonium salts, we can mention ammonium chloride, ammonium carbonate and ammonium nitrate.

It is good to know that ammonium salts, which are composed of nitrate and especially perchlorate, are highly explosive. In such compounds, ammonium plays a role as a reducing agent.

Ammonium sulfate

Ammonium sulfate with the chemical formula SO 4 (NH 4 ) 2 is a type of mineral salt with industrial uses that includes various applications. Its main use is as an agricultural fertilizer for alkaline soils with 21% nitrogen and 24% sulfur.

In addition, it is used in agriculture as an auxiliary spray for fungicides, insecticides and water-soluble herbicides. It is also used as a wood preservative and even helps in the production of other ammonium salts. The noteworthy point is that if used next to metals, there is a possibility of corrosiveness. This point has caused its use cases to be less than before.

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Ammonium nitrate

Ammonium nitrate with the chemical formula NH 4 NO 3 consists of small porous pieces. This substance is used as one of the most common chemical fertilizers. It is also used in explosives for mining, and it is mixed with fuel oil and detonated with a detonator.

This material does not start burning directly, but it can speed up the burning process of other materials.

Safety tips for persulfate tablets

  • Store ammonium persulfate in a well-ventilated area.
  • Note that the containers containing this substance are completely closed.
  • When working with this material, use glasses, gloves and other protective equipment for skin and eyes.
  • Avoid pouring ammonium persulfate into the environment.
  • This substance is dangerous for human health. As mentioned before, heating it releases toxic gases of nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide and ammonia vapor.
  • Do not breathe in the vicinity of its particles, vapors, gas or spray.
  • In case of breathing problems, go to the health center immediately.
  • Wash your hands thoroughly after handling this material.
  • If the skin is contaminated, wash it thoroughly.
  • Do not eat or smoke near ammonium persulfate.
  • Preferably use this product in open spaces or in well-ventilated environments.
  • If this substance comes into contact with the eyes, the possibility of irritation, redness, pain and burning is very high and it causes skin itching if touched.
  • Breathing and inhaling it will also cause unpleasant side effects such as shortness of breath, poisoning, sore throat and cough.
  • Eating persulfate tablets is very dangerous and causes nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Also, if a large amount of this substance is eaten, there is a possibility of stomach bleeding, esophageal mucosa swelling, anesthesia, esophageal stricture, and breathing problems.
  • If the person is unconscious after swallowing this substance, do not give him anything.
  • If he is conscious, wash his mouth with plenty of water and give him a glass of water.
  • In this case, do not use anti-nausea drugs.
  • In times when a person has eaten substances with game properties, it is appropriate to use lemon juice and orange juice, and when eating acidic substances, milk and antacids can be effective to some extent.

How to maintain

This material should be stored in dry, cool (room temperature) and with proper ventilation system. And the discharge of ammonium persulfate should also be done in the light. Also, store it somewhere in the warehouse away from organic materials, sulfur, phosphoric fuels and reducing agents.

Buy ammonium persulfate

Chemicals play an important role in the quality of the final product, and for this reason, they must be of high quality. Procurement Company receives ammonium persulfate and other chemicals from the best suppliers and provides them to domestic production units and factories. for more information and to place an order . Contact us